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Important Information for the Intending Settler 

Immigration Regulations. — The Canadian Immigration Regulations 
debar from Canada Immigrants of the following classes 

(1) Idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics, insane persons 
and persons w ho have been insane at any time previously. 

(2) Persons afflicted with tuberculosis or any contagious or infectious 

(3) Persons who are dumb, blind, or otherwise physii ally defective, unless 
security is given against such persons becoming a public charge in Canada. 
tWhcre any member of a family is physically defective communicate with 
the nearest* Canadian Government Agent, giving him full particulars about 
physical dlsaMHtJ before making arrangements to move to Canada.) 

(4) Persons over 15 vears of age who are unable to read. (Exception is 
mail" in the case of certain relatives; see nearest Canadian Government 

(5) Persons who are guilty of any crime involving moral turpitude: per- 
sons seeking entry to Canada for any immoral purpose. 

(6) Beggars, vagrants, and persons liable to become a public charge 

(7) Persons suffering from chronic alcoholism or the drug habit, and per- 
sons of physical inferiority whose defect is likely to prevent them making their 
way in Canada. 

(8) Anarchists, agitators and persons who disbelieve in or are opposed to 
organized Government or who advocate the unlawful destruction of property. 

(9) Persons who have been deported from Canada for any cause and per- 
sons who have been deported from any British Dominion or from any allied 
country on account of an offence committed in connection with the war. 

(10) Immigrants who are nationals of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bul- 
garia, or Turkey. 

The Canadian Immigration Regulations are subject to change from time to 
time, and persons residing in the United States who are not citizens of the 
l'nit d Mates, should in every case correspond with ue nearest Canadian 
Government Agent, giving particulars of nationality, length of residence in 
the l'nit' d Mates, present occupation and intended occupation, before deciding 
to move to Canada. 

Homestead Regulations. — Every person who is the sole head of a family 
and e' erv male who has attained the age of eighteen years and is a British 
subject or declares intention to become a British subject, and is not excluded 
under 'In- Immigration regulations (see preceding section), may apply for 
entry f< r a homestead of one-quarter section (160 acres more or less). An 
entrv fee of S10 is charged, and the settler must erect a habitable house upon 
the 'homestead and reside therein for at least six months in each of three 
He must do some cultivation in each of the three years and at the end 
of that period must have at least thirty acres of the homestead broken of 
whi< h twentv acres must be cropped. Where the land is difficult to cultivate 
on account of scrub or stone a reduction may be made in the area of breaking 

Live stock mav be substituted for cultivation on certain conditions, where 
the land is not suitable for grain growing. 

A homesteader may perform the required residence duties by living on a farm 
of not !• >■•. than eighty acres within nine miles of his homestead. Such farm 
must be solely owned by the homesteader, or by his father, mother, son, 
daughnr, brother, or sisier. If the residence is performed in this way fifty 
acres musl be broken on the homestead, of which area thirty acres must be 
plao d uieb r crop, a reasonable proportion of the work to be done in each 
year after date of entry. 

The foregoing regulations apply to public lands in the provinces of Mani- 
toba, Sa»ka«( liewap. ai d All erta and in the Peace River Block of 3,500,000 
acres in Northern British Columbia. 

Custom* Regulations —A settler may bring into Canada, free of duty 
live >toek for the farm on the follow ing basis, if he has actually owned such 
x k abroad for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and 
his brought them Into Canada within one year after his arrival, viz.: If 
horses only are brought in, 16 allowed; If cattle are brought In, 16 allowed; 
f sheep are brought in, 160 allowed; if swine are brought in, 160 allowed. 
If horses, cattle, sheep, and swine are brought In together, or part of each, 
the >ame proportions as above are to be observed. 

Duty Is to be paid on live stock in excess of the number for which provision 
Is made as above. For customs entry purposes a mare with a colt under six 
months old Is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a calf under six months 
old i; also to be reckoned as one animal. Cattle and other live stock imported 
Into Canada are subject to quarantine regulations. 

Settlers' effects, free, viz.: Wearing apparel, household furniture, books. 
Implements and tools of trade, occupation or employment; guns, musical 
instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, live stock, bicycles, 
vehicles (Including automobiles), implements moved by mechanical power, 
machinery used for agricultural purposes, tractors (new) valued at $1400 or 
I well parts t hereof for repairs, and agricultural implements in use 
by the settler tor at least six months before his removal to Canada, not to 
Include machinery or articles imported for use in any manufacturing establish- 
ment or for sale;' also books, pictures, family plate, furniture, personal effects 
and heirlooms left by beqiust provided that any dutlab e articles entered as 
• if cti may not bo so entered unless brought with the settler on his 
Nisi arrii t . and shall not besold or otherwise disposed of without payment of 

The settler will be required to take oath that all of the articles have been 
owned by himself or herself for at least six months before removal to Canada; 
that none have been imported as merchandise, for use in a manufacturing 
establishment or as a contractor's outtit, or lor sale; that he or she intends 
becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of Canada and that the 
"live stock" enumerated is intended for his or her own use on the farm which 
he or she is about to occupy (or cultivate), and not for sale or speculative 
purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons. 

Freight Regulations.— 1. Carload shipments of farm settlers' effects must 
consist of the following described property of an actual farm settler, when 
shipped by and consigned to the same person. 

Household goods and personal effects, all second hand, and may include : 
Agricultural implements and farm vehicles, tractors and automobiles, 
all second hand. 

Live stock, not exceeding a total of ten head, consisting of horses, mules, 
cows, heifers, calves, oxen, sheep, or hogs (from Eastern Canada not 
more than six head of horses and mules may be included in a car of 
farm settlers' effects). 

Lumber and shingles (pine, hemlock, spruce, or basswood), which must 
not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or the equivalent thereof, or in lieu of (not 
in addition to) the lumber and shingles, a portable house, knocked 
down, may be shipped. 

Seed grain, trees, or shrubbery. The quantity of seed grain must not 
exceed the following weight; Wheat, 4,500 pounds; oats, 3,400 
pounds; barley, 4,800 pounds; flax seed, 400 pounds. From points in 
Western States 1,400 pounds of seed corn may also be included. 

Live poultry (small lots only). 

Feed, sufficient for feeding the live stock while on the journey. 

2. Live Stock. — Should a settler wish to ship more than ten head of live 
stock (as per Rule 1) in a car, the additional animals will be charged for at 
the less-than-carload live stock rate (at estimated weights as per Canadian 
Freight Classification), but the total charge for the car will not exceed the rato 
for a straight carload of live stock. 

3. Passes.— One man will be passed free in charge of full carloads of set- 
tlers' effects containing live stock, to feed, water, and care for them in transit. 

4. Top Loads. — Agents do not permit, under any circumstances, any article 
to be loaded on the top of box or stock cars; such manner of loading is danger- 
ous and absolutely forbidden. 

5. Settlers' effects, to be entitled 10 the car load rates, cannot be stopped 
at any point short of destination for the purpose of unloading part. 

6 For information as to carload rates on Farm Settlers' Effects, apply to 
Canadian Government Agents, as different states have different classifieatio.n. 

Hints for the Man about to Start 

The newcomer may start for Western Canada during any month in the year. 

Railroads carry him to within a short distance of his new home. 

The country roads are good, and there is settlement in all parts, so that 
shelter is easily reached. 

For feeding on the way, put in two-by four cleats breast high on the horses, 
and fix to lit the end of a stout trough which is dropped in, afterwards nailing 
on a top cleat. 

If they have been used to corn, take along twenty bushels for each horse, 
if possible, not only to feed along the way, but to use while breaking them in 
to an oat diet. Bring all the horses you can. Five big horses can pull a 12- 
inch gang through the sod, but six can do it easier and you can use four on 
the harrow. If you have been intending to bring eight horses, bring twelve; 

If you have any spare time or can get work, they bring in money. 

Bring your cows and also your cream separator. The latter will not sell 
for much and is useful here, as you have no place to store quantities of milk. 

Pack up a supply of groceries in such a way that you can get at them easily, 
but upon this you may have to pay duty. 

Do not sell anything that can be used in your new farming. Old belts, 
singletrees, doubletrees, and such goods are worth far more away out on the 
prairies than on the old improved farm, and they will cost more there. 

Bring all sorts of tools and wagon gears with you; you will save money by 
doing so; anvil, drills, old bolts, and screws, etc., come in handy. 

Bring your stock remedies and a medicine cabinet for the household, with 
carbolic salve, liniments, etc. 

One of the first things you will need is a hayrack, and you will not have time 
to build one before it is needed, so take the old one or build a new one and take 
it with you. It can be used for crating and for partitions and other purposes 
,in loading the car. Make the sides of the rack quite close and have a solid 

Bring along your base-burner. Coal and wood are plentiful. 
Have a small tank made to carry water i l the cars for the horses, to hold 
two barrels, about three feet in diameter and four high, the top soldered on, 
with a lid just large enough to get in a pail. It also will be useful to haul water 
for the house when you land. 

Wives intending to join their husbands in Canada should bring evidence 
along confirming this. 

doty until after twelve months' actual use In Canada 

[ or particulars aa to reduced railway fares and settlers' rates on stock and effects, for information of any nature relative to 
rn < anada and t!c wonderful opportunities being offered to new settlers, write the nearest of the following Canadian 
1 'overnment Agente in the United States: 

1. M. MncLACHLAN , 10 Jefferson Ave., E. Detroit, Mich. 

C. J. BRUUGHI ON, Room 412. I 12 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111. 

GEORGE A. HALL, 123 Second St.. Milwaukee. Wis. 

R. A. GARRETT, 31 I Jackson St. St. Paul, Minn. 

A. E. PILK1E, 202 V/. 5th St.. Des Moines, Iowa. 

O. G. RUT LEDGE, 301 E. Genesee St., Syracuse. N. Y. 

W. S. NETHERY, 82 E. Rich St.. Columbus. Ohio. 

M. J. JOHNSTONE, 1 16 Monument Hare. Indianapolis. Ind. 

W. E. BLACK, 1 1 7 Roberts St.. Fargo. N. D. 

GEO. A. COOK, Drawer 197. Watertown, S. D. 
W. V BENNETT, 200 Bee Bldg., Omaha, Neb. 
F. H. HEWITT, 2012 Main St., Kansas City, Mo. 
K HADDELAND 104 Central Ave., Great Falls. Mont. 
J. L. PORTE, Cor. 1st and Post Sts., Spokane, Wash. 
C. A. LAUR1ER, 43 Manchester St., Manchester, N. H. 
MAX A. BOWLBY, 73 Tremont St.. Boston, Mass. 
F A HARRISON, 308 North 2d St.. Harrisbuig. Pa. 
GILBERT ROCHE, 3 and 5 First St.. San Francisco, Cal. 

A list of unoccupied, privately owned lands for sale, giving prices, terms, acreage suitable for cultivation, distance from a 
railway, t ■■' oil. value ol buildings and name and address ot owners, may be obtained upon application to any Agent referred 

to above Applicants must specify the location in which they are interested 

CAM \°\^ AQ t vvp 


Cheap Railroad Rates for Settlers 

An intending settler from a country other than Canada wishing to take up farm 
land in Western Canada and wishing: to secure the lowest transportation rates, should 
obtain a certificate from a Canadian Government Agent, purchase a ticket to the 
nearest point 1,11 ''• » '-tnadian Pacific Railway, the Canadian National Railway, or 
the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and on arrival there present his certificate, in 
exchange for which he will receive for himself and any member of his family accom- 
panying him, as enumerated on certificate, a ticket to his destination in Western 
Canada, at a very low rate, which rate may be learned from the Agent before starting. 

Should the settler, after acquiring land, desire to return to his family, he will 
be accorded similar rate returning. 

Information as to special reduced rates on settlers' effects in carloads or less 
than carloads will be given on application to the Canadian Government Agent, or 
any agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Canadian National Railway, or the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. 


Any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male over 18 years old, may 
homestead a quarter-section of available Dominion land in Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
or Alberta. The applicant must appear in person at the Dominion Lands Agency or 
Sub-Agency for the district. Entry by proxy may be made at the office of any 
Local Agent of Dominion Lands (not sub-agent), on certain conditions, by wife, 
father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister of intending homesteader. 

Duties. — Six months' residence upon and cultivation of the land in each of three 
years. A homesteader may live within nine miles of his homestead on a farm of at 
least 80 acres solely owned and occupied by him or by his father, mother, son, 
daughter, brother or sister. 

A habitable house is required in every case except when residence is performed in 
the vicinity in accordance with the regulations. 

The area of cultivation required by regulations is subject to reduction in case of 
rough, scrubby or stony land after report is made by Homestead Inspector on 
application for patent. Live stock may be substituted for breaking and cropping 
where the required area cannot be brought under cultivation. 

All lands in the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta south of the south 
boundary of township 16 are reserved from homestead entry, but any vacant lands 
in this area may be applied for under the grazing regulations. 

A temporary reservation has also been placed upon all the remaining lands in 
the Calgary, Lethbridge, and Swift Current Land Districts, together with those 
portions of the Moose Jaw and Saskatoon districts lying west of the 3rd meridian, 
pending a general inspection of such lands. 

Homestead entries may be secured in the ordinary way for any vacant and avail- 
able lands in the following districts ; — 

Moose Jaw Land District north of the south boundary of township 1G and 
east of the 3rd meridian. 

Saskatoon Land District east of the 3rd meridian. 

The whole of the following land districts: — 

Winnipeg, Dauphin, Prince Albert, Battleford, Edmonton, Peace River, 
and Grande Prairie. 


A settler may bring into Canada, free of duty, live stock for the farm on the 
folk >wing basis, if he has actually owned such live stock abroad for at least six 
months before his removal to Canada, and has brought them into Canada within 
one year after his first arrival, viz: — 

Ji horses only are brought in, 10 allowed. 

If cattle " " 16 

If sheep " " 160 " 

If swine " " 160 " 

If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together, or part of each, same 
proportions as above are to be observed. 


Duty is to be paid on the live stock in excess of the number above provided for. 

For Customs entry purposes a mare with a colt under six months old is to be 
reckoned as one animal. A cow with a calf under six months old is also to be 
reckoned as one animal. 

Cattle and other live stock imported into Canada are subject to Quarantine 

Item 705 of the Customs Tariff (1907), for free entry of settlers' effects, reads 
as follows : — 

705. Settlers' effects, viz: wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable house- 
hold furniture and other household effects; instruments and tools of trade, occupa- 
tion or employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, type- 
writers, bicycles, carts, wagons and other highway vehicles, agricultural implements 
and live stock for the farm, not to include live stock or articles for sale, or for use 
as a contractor's outfit, nor vehicles or implements moved by mechanical power, nor 
machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing if actually 
owned abroad by the settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada, anrl 
subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister of Customs: Provided that any duti 
able article entered as settlers' effects may not be entered unless brought by the settler 
on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of 
duty until after twelve months' actual use in Canada. 

The following additional regulation went into effect May 24, 1922: — 

705a. Settlers' effects, viz: machines, vehicles and implements for agricultural 
purposes, moved by mechanical power, and motor vehicles, valued at not more than one 
thousand dollars, and boats for fishing purposes if actually owned abroad by the settler 
for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and subject to regulations pre- 
scribed by the Minister of Customs and Excise: Provided that the said machines, 
vehicles, implements and boats may not be so entered unless brought by the settler on 
his first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of 
duty until after twelve months' actual use in Canada Free. 

The settler will be required to take the following oath: — 

I do hereby solemnly make oath and say that all 

the goods and articles hereinbefore mentioned are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, 
entitled to Free Entry as Settlers' Effects, under the tariff of duties of Customs now in force, 
and that all of them have been actually owned by myself for at least six months before my 
removal to Canada ; and that none of the goods or articles shown in this entry have been 
imported as merchandise or for use in any manufacturing establishment or as a contractor's 
outfit or for sale, and that I intend becoming a permanent settler within the Dominion of 
Canada, and that the " Live Stock " enumerated and described in the entry hereunto attached 
is intended for my own use on the farm which I am about to occupy (or cultivate), and not for 
sale or speculative purposes, nor for the use of any other person or persons. 

Sworn to before me this day of 




The following Customs ports are hereby declared %o be Animals Quarantine 
Stations, and all animals imported into Canada subject to quarantine must be entered 
through said stations, viz: Halifax and Yarmouth, N.S. ; St. John and McAdam 
Junction, N.B. ; Charlottetown, P.E.I. ; Sherbrooke and St. Johns, Que.; Bridgeburg, 
WindsoT, Sarnia, Sault Ste. Marie and Fort Frances, Ont. ; Emerson, Gretna and 
Bannerman, Man.; Northgate, North Portal, Big Muddy, West Poplar River and 
Willow Creek, Saskatchewan; Pinhorn, Coutts, and Twin Lakes, Alberta; Brides 
ville, Newgate, Kingsgate, Nelson, Rossland, Grand Forks, Midway, Myncaster, 
Keremeos, Osoyoos, Huntingdon, White Rock, Cascade, New Westminster, Vancouver 
and Victoria, B.C.; White Horse, Y.T. Quebec is also declared to be an Animals' 
Quarantine Station in so far as importations into Canada by sea are concerned. 

Animals subject to inspection only, but which are not subject to quarantine, may 
enter through the aforesaid and at the following ports: Pictou, North Sydney, N.S.; 
St. Stephen, Woodstock, Edmundson, Grand Falls, St. Leonards, Debec Junction, 
Centrcville, Florenceville, Perth Junction, Claire, and Aroostook Junction, N.B. ; 
St. Pamphile, St. Camille de Bellechasse, Comin's Mills, Lake Megantic, Beauce- 
ville, Coaticook, Beebe Junction, Highwater, Abercorn, St. Armand, Lacolle Junc- 
tion, Noyan Junction, Athelstan, Dundee, Trout River, Clarenceville, Armstrong, 


Lacolle, St. Agnes de Dundee, Que. : Cornwall, Prescott, Morrisburg, Brockville, 
Kingston, Cobourg, Toronto, Xiagara Falls, Port Arthur, Rainy River, Ont.; Snow- 
flake, Sprague, Man. ; Sidney, Nanaimo and Ladner, B.C. 

All animals imported into the Dominion of Canada from the United States, 
Newfoundland and Mexico, must be accompanied by a statutory declaration or affi- 
davit made by the owner or importer, stating clearly the purpose for which said 
animals are imported, viz: whether for breeding purposes, for milk production, for 
work, for grazing, feeding or slaughter, or whether they form part of settlers' effects, 
or whether they are entered for temporary stay, as provided by these Regulations. 

Said declaration or affidavit must be presented by the Collector of Customs at 
the port of entry, who will decide whether the animals are entitled to entry under 
these Regulations, and who will notify the Veterinary Inspector of the Department 
of Agriculture in all cases where the Regulations require an inspection to be made. 

Horses, Mules and Asses from the United States 

The importation of branded or range horses, mules and asses, other than those 
which are gentle and broken to harness or saddle, is prohibited. 

Horses, mules and asses, shall be inspected, and must be accompanied by: — 

(a) A satisfactory certificate of mallein test dated not more than thirty days 
prior to the date of entry, and signed by an inspector of the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry; or, 

(b) A similar certificate from a reputable veterinarian, provided such certificate 
is endorsed by an inspector of the said Bureau of Animal Industry ; or, 

(c) A similar certificate from an inspector of the Canadian Department of 


When stock is tested settlers should obtain two mallein test certificates — one 
for the United States railway companies to attach to the way-bills, and the other for 
the Canadian Veterinary Inspector at the boundary. If without a certificate at the 
boundary, settlers will be liable to detention while the stock is being re-tested. 


If so ordered by the Minister, horses, mules or asses may be detained, isolated, 
dipped, or otherwise treated, or, in default of such order, where the inspector has 
reason to believe or suspect that the animals are affected with, or have been exposed 
to contagious or infectious disease. 

"When not accompanied by a certificate, such horses, mules or asses must be 
submitted to the mallein test either at the quarantine station where entry is made, 
or, under such restrictions as the Veterinary Director General may prescribe, at 
point of destination. 

When tested at the port of entry, if any reactors are found they shall be 
slaughtered without compensation, or definitely marked and returned to the United 
States, and must not again be presented for entry. All horses, mules or asses in the 
same consignment shall be returned to the United States, but the non-reactors may 
be again presented for entry and further test after the lapse of a period not less than 
fifteen days from the date of the first test, provided that satisfactory evidence is 
produced to the effect that they have not, during the said period, been in contact with 
affected animals. When tested at destination points all animals reacting to the test 
will be slaughtered without compensation, while those comprising the rest of the 
shipment will be detained in quarantine until it is shown to the satisfaction of the 
Veterinary Director General that they are free from disease. 

No compensation will, under any circumstances, be paid for horses reacting 10 
mallein within six months after date of their importation to Canada. 

Cattle from the United States 
All cattle shall be inspected, and if so ordered by the Minister, may be detained, 
isolated, submitted to the tuberculin test, dipped or otherwise treated, or in default 
of such order, where the inspector has reason to believe or suspect that animals a.v 
affected with or have been exposed to contagious or infectious disease. 


Cattle for breeding purposes and milk production, six months old or over, if 
unaccompanied by a satisfactory tuberculin test chart dated not more than sixty 
days prior to the date of entry and signed or endorsed by a veterinarian of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry, must be detained in quarantine for such period 
as may be deemed necessary, and subjected to the tuberculin test; cattle reacting 
thereto must be returned to the United States or slaughtered without compensation. 

Cattle from fully accredited herds in the United States accompanied by a certifi- 
cate signed or endorsed by a veterinarian of the United States Bureau of Animal 
Industry stating that they are from a fully accredited herd, and have been tested 
within one year from the date of importation shall be exempted from the provisions 
of this section. 

Importers may be required to furnish a statutory declaration that the chart 
produced applies to the cattle it purports to describe and none other. 

Other Ruminants from the United States 
All sheep and goats shall be inspected, and all sheep imported to Canada from 
the United States for purposes other than immediate slaughter shall be admitted 
only at quarantine and not at an inspection stations. Such sheep, unless accom- 
panied by a satisfactory certificate signed by an inspector of the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry, stating that they have been twice dipped in one of 
the preparations approved by the said Bureau, shall be subjected to a quarantine of 
thirty days. 


All swine, except pure-bred double treated hogs, must be accompanied by a certi- 
ficate signed by a veterinarian of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, 
stating that neither swine plague nor hog cholera has existed within a radius of five 
miles of the premises in which they have been kept for a period of six months imme- 
diately preceding date of shipment, but such swine shall nevertheless be inspected, 
and shall be subjected to a quarantine of thirty days before being allowed to come 
in contact with Canadian animals. 

Non-immunized Hogs 
The importer will be required to produce an affidavit to the effect that the swine 
he proposes to import have not been immunized to hog cholera by the simultaneous 
injection of hog cholera virus and serum. 

Double treated Hogs 
Pure-bred hogs immunized by the simultaneous method of injecting serum and 
virus will be permitted to enter Canada when accompanied by a certificate of a 
veterinarian of the Bureau of Animal Industry, or the certificate of a state veterin- 
arian endorsed by a Bureau Veterinary Inspector stating that neither swine plague 
nor hog cholera have existed in the herd in which the hogs were kept during the six 
months immediately preceding date of shipment, and by the affidavit of the breeder 
or last owner that they were immunized not less than thirty days prior to importa- 
tion, and have been immersed in a satisfactory disinfectant solution previous to ship- 
ment. Thirty days' quarantine is required for these and all other hogs. 


Newly arrived immigrants will receive at the Immigration Office in Winnipeg, 
or at any other Dominion Lands Office in Western Canada, information as to the 
lands that are open for entry, and from the officers in charge, free of expense, advice 
and assistance in securing lands to suit them. Full information respecting the lands, 
timber, coal and mineral laws, as well as respecting Dominion Lands in the Railway 
Belt in British Columbia, may be obtained upon application to the Secretary of the 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa; the Commissioner of Immigration, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba; or to any of the Dominion Lands Agents in Weslern Canada. 

All U tters of inquiry addressed to DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION AND 
COLONIZATION, OTTAWA, CANADA, receive prompt attention. 
November. 1922. 

THE recent agricultural depression brought to the eyes 
of the world the fact that one of its basic industries 
was likely to suffer a severe blow unless steps were 
taken to secure a remedy. Physician after physician applied 
remedies, but even parliamentarians and newspapers were 
unable to place their finger on the pulse that would respond. 
As it appears today, it was a spasmodic wave due to the 
ebb and flow of the tide of readjustment that was bound 
to follow a disturbance such as the Great War caused. 

Psychologically it was bound to change; there was certain 
to be a reflex movement that would bring agricultural con- 
ditions back to the place where they normally and rightly 
belong, enabling them to resume their life in national impor- 
tance, with the probability of reaching a prominence never 
before attained, when the man of the soil might again be 
heard to say with pardonable pride, " I am a farmer." 

The crucial test through which the farmer passed, gave 
to him experience which will cause him to turn to channels 
from which he may have become diverted. This experience 
has brought him economic lessons. New business methods 
must be adopted. Successful business men understand the 
marketing costs of their products. Much higher prices for 
grain and live stock cannot be expected, therefore the cost 
of producing must be reduced. 

Efficiency and sound business judgment are needed more 
in agriculture today than ever before and are as important 
to the farmer as to a railroad company, or to a great steel 

The farmer must consider whether he is handicapped in 
lowering his production cost by a heavy annual expense of 
a too high-priced farm. He must endeavour to secure an 
equal footing in the competition for a lower cost of produc- 
1 — tion. In Western Canada the farmer has come 
through the dark era with that fortitude and 
determination so peculiar to a new country — 
and is meeting the changed situation with 
energy and a smile. In Western 
Canada the farmer is not hampered 
by an annual overhead expense 
of heavy interest on high 
priced land. He is able 
to produce at a 

■K? "What we call Luck is simply Pluck, 

And doing things over and over; 
Courage and will, Perseverance and skill, — 
Are the four leaves of Luck's clover." 

because his land value seldom exceeds $50 an acre. 

Owing to the fact that he is farming land, the price of 
which is from $25 to $50 an acre, producing crops of wheat 
running from 20 to 40 bushels per acre, and other grains in 
proportion, he is able to produce at a low cost. In addition 
to this, a fact which should not be lost sight of, is the large 
area that he can farm at low cost, giving him an added 
advantage in reducing the cost of production. 

From the best sources available information leading to 
the value of the grain crops of Western Canada for 1921 
gives a total of a trifle less than $480,000,000, made up as 
follows: Manitoba, $93,128,000; Saskatchewan, $297,414,- 
000; Alberta, $88,985,000. These figures show less return 
for the crops than was realized in 1920, while the yields 
were greater. The reason the reader has already divined, 
for, doubtless, he has been up against similar conditions. 
The corn that he fully expected to bring him over a dollar 
a bushel, he saw carried away to the market, and bring 
back a 30- or 40-cent check. The price for wheat in Canada 
was only 1 1 cents above the pre-war average. Wheat for 
the whole of Canada averaged 86 cents a bushel in 1921 as 
compared with $1.62 in 1920; oats 37 cents as against 53 
cents; barley 47 cents as against 83 cents. Other grain 
prices had a similar fall. With a continent-wide condition 
of like character, Western Canada has no apology to offer. 
On the contrary, there is some pride taken in the position. 
While other parts of the Continent, where grain-growing is 
carried on, have suffered in like manner by deflation in 
prices farmers have had to face a much higher cost in 
production, such as high rents, high-priced farms, and high 
taxes. They had calculated on receiving war or nearly war 
figures for their grain and therefore were amply justified 
in submitting to the tax that soaring land prices 
set upon them. Western Canada fortunately did 
not suffer from inflated land prices. Therefore, 
when grain prices fell, the losses sustained 
were not so great; they did not cut out the 
margin of profit, excepting in some cases 
where some climatic conditions 
caused it. Farming on low- 
priced productive lands is 
doubtless a paying 



'HE Dominion Constitution is 
a skillful blend of the princi- 
ples of the Biitish Constitu- 
tion with the Federal System. It differs 
from the United States Constitution in two 
vital points; in the first place, the Dominion 
itself and each province is administered on 
the system of a ministry responsible to the legislature, and 
secondly, all legislative and executive authority not con- 
ferred in express terms on the provinces belongs to the 
Federation. A fairly successful attempt is made to allocate 
to the provinces control over all merely local or private 
matters; education falls within their sphere subject to pro- 
vision for the protection of the rights of Protestant or 
Roman Catholic minorities, and they may deal with agri- 
culture and immigraticn, subject to the paramount power 
of the Dominion. The provinces may freely modify their 
constitutions so long as they do not affect the office of 
Lieutenant-Governor. This officer in each case is appointed 
and removed by the Dominion Government, which also 
possesses the right of appointing the superior district and 
county judges in each province. Moreover, the Domin- 
ion may disallow any provincial legislation, a right which is 
occasionally exercised when provincial enactments exceed the 
powers of the provinces, and, much more rarely, when such 
enactments violate principles of natural justice. 

No direct relations exist between the provinces and the 
Imperial Government which deals with the Dominion only. 
The Governor General is appointed by the King, whose wishes 
as to his representative command the fullest consideration, 
while the ultimate responsibility for the selection rests with 
the prime minister, but care is taken to ensure that 
the nominee will be acceptable to the Dominion. In 
Canada the Governor General now occupies toward 
his ministers the same position as the King to 
the government of the United Kingdom, 
and though he serves as a channel of 
communication between the Domin- 
ion and the Imperial Govern- 
HM^Hk.J . jk & ment he no longer seeks to 

control Dominion action. 


the Dominion prime minister now communicates direct 
with the prime minister of the United Kingdom. 

Since 1920 Canada has been a full member of the League 
of Nations, independent of the United Kingdom, and her 
representatives have voted against the British delegates on 
issues of importance at meetings of the League Assembly. 


The grain crop of Western Canada for 1921 may be 
reported as a somewhat mixed condition, varying from 
very light to very heavy. The lighter districts in all 
three provinces were in the South, bordering on the American 
boundary and extending northwards for varying distances. 
Throughout these districts the rainfall during the season was 
somewhat light and wheat crops in many sections did not 
average more than ten bushels to the acre. An interesting 
development, however, was the growing of corn in which 
great headway has been made in recent years. Some of the 
cornfields seen in Western Canada last year equalled any- 
thing to be found in the East or South and gave additional 
colour to the general opinion that the corn belt is steadily 
moving northward. 

In the central and northern portion of the provinces crops 
varied from medium to heavy. Along the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway from Winnipeg to west of Moose 
Jaw the average wheat yield might be placed at between 18 
and 22 bushels to the acre ; further north and in the Saskatoon 
and Edmonton district and southward from Edmonton 
toward Calgary 25 bushels per acre. Oats were a good crop, 
and in some districts the average approached 50 bushels to 
the acre while individual fields went 75 or more. Barley 
gave a good return but there was a falling off in the acreage 
in flax, due largely to the fact that last spring was favourable 
for wheat seeding and the farmers specialized mainly 
on wheat. 

In many districts sunflowers were grown for 
silage and astonishingly large acres were pro- 
duced. In one authentic instance 34 tons 
to the acre was the yield. Farmers are 
building silos and silaging sunflow- 
ers and corn. This, of course, 
promotes dairy interests, 
which are active and 


Peace and Plenty — Progress and Prosperity 

Mixed Farming gets all the profit 

DURING the past summer a very 
important group of bankers from 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and 
the neighbouring states passed through 
Western Canada on their way to the an- 
nual convention of the American Bankers' 
Association at Los Angeles. Numbering 
approximately 450 they were met at the 
boundary by a special representative of the Dominion 
Government, and one of the Bank of Montreal. When the 
four special trains carrying the party passed into Canada, 
the sun shone on the wheat sheaves in the fields in a man- 
ner which gave a magnificent impression and revealed the 
West in a garment of golden glory such as is seldom seen 
so late in the year. 

When these bankers were told that the wheat grown in 
the Prairie Provinces produced a revenue of from $250,000,- 
000 to $350,000,000 each year they were amazed. When 
reminded that wheat was different to natural resources by 
comparing it with coal, gold, etc., they were impressed, 
for it was demonstrated that when a ton of gold is taken 
out of a gold mine the mine is that much poorer, when a 
ton of coal is taken out of a coal mine there is that much 
less coal — but when a bushel of wheat is taken off land under 
proper cultivation it is but one of many more bushels which 
may be taken in succeeding years. 

The bankers were told that Western Canada produces 
more per capita than any agricultural country in the world. 

As the trains travelled on, mile after mile, some 
members of the party cautiously inquired, 
" when do these wheat fields end? " in response 
to which a map of the West was produced 
which demonstrated to the party as a 
whole that the West has a stretch 
of land 800 miles long and 500 
miles from North to South 
tt^MM 'i^ which is literally 



Come live with me — 
And we will all the pleasures prove 
That hills and valleys, dales and fields, 
Woods or steepy mountain yields. 

C hristopher Marlowe. 


with the wheat fields. This started the 
bankers thinking, and when they were in- 
formed that not more than 10 per cent of 
the arable land was under cultivation one 
prominent financier exclaimed : "A country 
with such vast agricultural resources as 
Western Canada has no need to fear the 
future. It is an Empire within an Empire. 
As soon as 50 per cent of your arable land is under cultiva- 
tion you will grow more wheat than the whole of the United 

Many very complimentary references were made by the 
visitors to the small thriving towns and villages which dot 
the prairies, and special interest was taken in the educational 
institutions with which Canada is so well endowed. 

Some of the questions frequently asked will appear humor- 
ous to Canadians, but they illustrate how little is known, 
generally speaking, of Canadian history and conditions, in 
the United States. One of the questions asked was: "How 
much bounty does Canada pay to King George?" The 
reply was: "That question was settled for good and all by 
your ancestors in 1 772 when they threw the tea into Boston 
Harbor, and, thanks to them no British commonwealth has 
been required or expected to pay any bounty or tax of any 
description to the British government." 

The value of such a visit as the one above described can- 
not be over-estimated. These bankers, who already hold over 
$200,000,000 of Canadian investments, have gone 
back to their homes satisfied that their present 
investments are safe and are now ready and 
anxious to add materially to them. These 
financiers came; they saw, and they were 
conquered; they are workers for Can- 
ada and things Canadian because 
actual contact with our coun- 
tr y has made them firm 
believers in it. 


DiAi ^ Present Day Opportunity— Low Priced Land WjESSVll 


One Best Investment. — In the course of a letter Mr. H. N. 
Bayne, Local Manager Black Hawk Feeding Co., Waterloo, 
Iowa, says: " I am very glad to say I have one section of excel- 
lent land in Alberta. No crop failure has ever occurred in our 
district, which was homesteaded in 1902 and known as the 
'Spring Lake District,' Daysland, southeast of Edmonton. 
Good land, in Western Canada is the one best investment." 

Proof of Success. — Proof of success in the irrigated section 
is exemplified in a farmer named Williamson. After working 
as a hired man he rented an engine and ploughing outfit on an 
acreage basis, and, with the proceeds of one season's ploughing, 
purchased an irrigated farm of eighty acres and broke it. In 
the fall he bought a threshing machine and paid for it through 
the proceeds of the season's threshing operations. This is his 
third season's farming, and he owns a farm, threshing and 
ploughing outfit and tractor, all fully paid for, 

A Satisfied Settler. — "When I landed in Canada from England 
in 1911, I was absolutely without any farming experience, my 
sole capital consisting of $48. I came to Sedgwick, in Central 
Alberta, and worked for a farmer there for four years. In the 
spring of 1915 I had enough money to buy a farm on crop pay- 
ment. Today I own 320 acres, a full line of machinery, ten 
horses, cattle, hogs and poultry. Alberta, to my way of think- 
ing, is a good country for young people or young married couples 
to start in, and is a long way ahead of any country that I know 
of. I have made this statement to show what one can do in 
this country with small capital, without any government or 
outside help, and I do not think that there is another country 
that you can do this in the same time, and lots of countries not 
at all." — Wm. Henley. 

Western Canada Opportunities. — -"If he is willing to work 
and apply himself, the opportunities in Western Canada for a 
man with small capital are the very best." This is the opinion 
of Sydney Chipperfield, who left the county of Essex, England, 
in 1883. and homesteaded in Western Canada. He now owns 
three sections (1,920 acres) of land, and has a herd of 
- - fifty head of cattle, including six pure bred Holsteins. 

He Came from Palouse. — "No better opportunities 
anywhere," is the way George W. Hampton sums 
up his opinions of Western Canada. Mr. 
Hampton came from the celebrated Pal- 
ouse country in Washington in 1917. 
I , He says his crop yields have been 
^ \A iggi " . '■'■> bushels to the acre of wheat, 

i n*JklL. ' — fljl s ~ '»" snf '' s 01 barley and 70 

' ""' bushels of oats. His 

live stock consists 
of dairy cattle, 

horses, and hogs and also a full farm equipment. 

Perfectly Satisfied. — Writing from Landrose, Sask., G. S. 
Beamish says: "We had this year about 9,000 bushels of grain. 
We have oats that will yield 100 bushels to the acre. We have 
also about 100 pigs on hand and find them very profitable, real 
money makers. We value our property, buildings, cattle, and 
machinery at $75,000 all made from the farm, and would not 
think of selling." — G. S. Beamish. 

Began with $500. — -When Mr. Brewer arrived at Crowfoot, 
Alberta, in 1911, from Pittsburgh, Pa., he had only $500. He 
is now farming 480 acres cf land near Crowfoot, Alberta, on 
which he had been able to pay $2,000 from the proceeds of his 
farming operations. "My place is all fenced and cross-fenced," 
he says: "I have a full line of farm equipment, horses, cattle, 
etc., all paid for, so 1 think I can be well satisfied." 

Only $25 when He Started. — "I really think this is the only 
place for men with little money," writes Nathan Meredith from 
Bienfait, Saskatchewan. "I had only $25 when I started here." 
Now Mr. Meredith has 320 acres of land and 13 head of stock. 
He came from Illinois in 1915. 

Stenographer Wins Success as Farmerette. — In many parts 
of Western Canada are to be found women owning and running 
farms for themselves, and what is more, making them pay. 
May Hazlett, an English girl, who lived on a farm in the Touch- 
wood Hills, in Saskatchewan, for the past four years, looking 
after her stock and cultivating her land, is one of these. The 
farm was originally her brother's homestead, at which time Miss 
Hazlett was a stenographer. Her brother was killed while 
fighting with the Canadian Forces at Vimy Ridge. Neighbours 
advised Miss Hazlett to sell the farm, but she decided that she 
was tired of the "eternal pounding" and became a farmerette, 
although she had never previously lived in the country. So, 
for the last four years she has been learning to farm, and with 
such success that today she owns several head of horses, a fine 
herd of cattle, and has more than one hundred acres of land under 

From Butcher to Farmer. — A few years ago R. L. Graham 
had a butcher shop in Winnipeg, and he was doing 
a fairly good business. He catered to a good trade, 
and made some money. His expenses were high, 
but prospects looked uncertain as the years 
went by. He decided to go farther west, 
and locate on a farm. He homesteaded 
1(30 acres, broke 77 acres with a 
yoke of oxen, got a neighbour 
to break an additional 33 ^4 
acres; and he put it all 

in crop. This was :m > > kvt 

in 1910. At ^, - ' 


Your Annual Rent Will Buy a Canadian Farm 

Good tor 45 bushels per acre 

the Chicago Live Stock Exhibition, as he was showing his 
splended Percheron Stallion, for which he got second prize and 
reserved Senior Championship, he told the story, how he 
owned today 1,120 acres, and was worth at least $60,000. He 
was an ardent booster for the Landis district, Saskatchewan. 

A Sandpoint, Idaho, Man Has His Say. — On August 13, 1919, 
he moved from Sandpoint, Idaho, to Lousana, in Central Alberta. 
Last year he broke about 14 acres and sowed two acres to wheat 
and Twelve acres to oats, expecting to get a little green feed, but 
threshed about three- hundred bushels of grain. From this he 
got feed and enough seed for this year. Last year he had about 
thirty acres in crop, which is looking fine. In writing he says: 
"We have also one of the best consolidated schools in the West, 
where our children can get four grades of high school work that 
I believe finish with the twelfth grade. Our children are taken 
to and from school in covered vans, so our ten months of school 
is not interrupted by cold or stormy weather. 

"I have farmed in California, Oregon, Washington, and 
Idaho, but I do not believe that you can find any place between 
here and the Gulf of California that can raise as much wheat, 
oats, barley, flax, timothy, potatoes, beets, carrots, and cabbage 
to the acre, without fertilizer or irrigation, as you can here. We 
have the soil, and we get our rain all in the summer time, when 
it is most needed." 

Has Done Well. — August Wahinder came to Caven, in Central 
Saskatchewan, from North Dakota, in 1908. He had been 
homesteading there for twenty years; on landing in Canada 
all he had was a few dollars in cash and five horses. Today he 
owns 800 acres of land and 40 head of cattle. 

The Housewife Speaks. — -"The opportunities here are splendid 
for the beginner who is not afraid of work," says Mrs. Alice 
Noakes, wife of a farmer who left London, England, two years 
ago, for Speers, Sask. "My husband had 22 bushels of wheat 
to the acre, last year, and owing to the amount of moisture this 
j ear, he expects a bigger yield this fall." 

Worth Reading. — According to Dennis Bird, who has been 
farming near Lashburn, in the Battleford district, for 
f^- the past thirteen years, "this district has never had a 
\ complete failure. It has always raised something, 
and there is always lots of feed." 

Hard to Beat.— "This country will take a lot of 
beating for a man between the ages of twenty 
and forty-five, with moderate means," is 
the opinion of Frank Bramhall, in refer- 
ence to the Lloydminster district, 
where he has been farming since 
1904. He is the owner of 
320 acres. His wheat 
has averaged from 
Sit- 2 to :',.") 

bushels per acre, while his oats have yielded between 30 and 
100 bushels. 

Best He Had Seen. — "This part of the country is as good as 
any that I have ever seen for anyone with moderate means," 
writes A. Frederickson, of Mervin, Sask. 

A Champion Wheat Grower. — In 1907, a farmer boy bundled 
his bride and his hopes in a white-topped prairie schooner and 
turned northward from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. They followed 
the road straight into Saskatchewan, settled on a tract near 
here and were soon "head over heels" in debt, says a Regina 
paper. That was fourteen years ago. This year the profits of 
the once penniless youth will run into many thousands of dollars. 
He is being hailed in Canada and other nations as a world cham- 
pion wheat and oat grower. He won second prize for wheat at 
the 1915 Denver international show; first prize and sweepstakes 
at the 1917 Peoria Exposition; second prize at the big Inter- 
national in Chicago in 1919, and took first prize at Kansas City 
the same year. First prizes and sweepstakes for oats were won 
at the Kansas City and Chicago expositions in 1919. To the 
scientific development work of this man is partly attributed the 
enlarged acreage production in the rich districts along the fines 
of the Canadian National Railways. Upon his shoulders this 
year rests the task of making wheat-growing more profitable in 
New Zealand. The Government has sent a cargo of his best 
seed to that country. 

He Can't Keep Away. — The other day Mr. C. J. Brought on. 
of the Chicago, Illinois, office of the Canadian Government found 
among his correspondence a letter signed by a name that he 
thought he recognized. The writer asked for information regard- 
ing shipment of car of settlers' effects to Hannah, Alberta. Mr. 
Broughton went down the state, visited the man whose address 
he had and whom he felt he had known years before. The son 
of the man was the first seen on the place. Mr. Broughton in 
introducing himself said, "Didn't you live in Canada at one 
time?" "Yes," the boy replied. "Before I was born you 
arranged for my father to go to Canada, to Nanton, Alberta. 
He homesteaded and then bought some more land. He 
farmed it and did well, but one day a buyer came ^rf% 
along and Dad sold out for S55 an acre. He returned 
to Illinois, but the Canada fever had got hold of 
him. He offered S70 an acre for the farm he 
had sold, but the offer was not accepted. 
Now, he has purchased near Hannah — and 
will start as soon as possible." "Mr. 
Broughton," he continued, "he can't 
keep away, and we soon will be 
started farming again in 
Canada, and you hurry 
along our car." Mr. 
Broughton ilid so. 

A Climate Conducive to Action and Energy 

THE first question asked when information regarding 
any country is sought is, "What about the climate?" 
In dealing with the many other matters that interest 
the possible settler, it is a pleasure to deal with the subject. 
The climate of Western Canada is enjoyable; it may seem 
strange to those who have no personal knowledge of the facts 
that Western Canadians enjoy the winter months. They 

animal having died from exposure where it has been properly 

Some years ago a North Saskatchewan farmer visited 
Lexington, Kentucky, and purchased a car-load of registered, 
standard-bred trotting mares, that had always received extra 
care and attention. They were turned out on the Canadian 
prairies, where they "picked" their own living and raised 
their colts without ever seeing the inside of a barn or 
shed. In the spring they were fat and hearty. This is 
the evidence that the dumb beast offers. 

Last January there was being played in the large, 
unheated skating rink at Edmonton, Alberta, one of 
the many hockey contests so popular as a winter 
sport in Western Canada. There were probably eight 
thousand people in attendance, one-half being women 
and children. As the game progressed, the crowd 
applauded and cheered the players of this national game 
for upwards of two hours. The thermometer registered 
thirty-eight below zero. Many of those present had 
driven ten to twelve miles in their cars to enjoy the 
sport. Hockey matches and curling competitions are 
never postponed on account of cold weather, though 
there are many instances whexe they are 

i_ — 

are made merry with carnival and sport; 
they afford an off season for visiting and cementing 
friendships; to visit one of the many party gatherings, 
where toast and song and dance and bulging cupboards 
make the merry hours run, a splendid insight may be 
had of what the winters accomplish in a social way. 
The winters are enjoyable. 

It is true there is sub-zero weather at times; let us 
deal with that. The desire for sports and pastimes is 
as keen during sub-zero weather as at any other time. 
It would not be so were it as unbearable as might be 
thought by those who had never spent a winter there. 
Winter is of no longer duration in Western Canada than 
in the Middle Northern States. Work on the land is 
kept up in the fall about as long in Western Canada 
as many hundred miles farther south. Spring seeding starts 
as early and in fact there have been seasons when Western 
Canadian farmers were earlier on the land in the spring. 

While the mercury drops lower in the thermometer, the 
calm that prevails at such times and the absence of humidity 
gives truth to the remark, "It is cold but you don't feel it." 
Accepting the proneness of man to avoid the truth, the 
evidence of the dumb beast should be sufficiently reliable to 
substantiate the statement that low temperature in Western 
Canada is not unbearable nor has it a penetrating 
coldness. Probably nowhere, but in the Southern 
States, and along the Canadian border line, is 
there any winter season that cattle and horses 
can run out during all these months with- 
out shed or artificial shelter. Fully 90 
per cent of horses and cattle stay 
out all winter. The former pick 
their living and the latter 
are fed around the barns. 
There is no record 
of any 

The Change Twenty 
Years Brought About 

on account of "warm weather and no ice." 

Writers of entertaining fiction and producers of exciting 
moving picture scenarios endeavor to meet a demand for the 
sensational by picturing the Canadian Northwest as a great 
sea of snow, traversed by dog teams and snow shoe runners, 
but the actual scenes are in reality so far north of the devel- 
oped or settled area that the "movie" actors find it neces- 
sary to substitute the snow-covered mountains of Colorado 
for "location." Many gain the idea of the all-Canadian 
weather from these unreliable sources. 

The people of Western Canada are as human 
as those anywhere on the continent, and it 
might seem strange, but nevertheless true, 
that a visitor would find less complaint 
of cold weather there in an entire 
winter, than he would find in one 
day discussing that country with 
people in California or 
Florida, who had never 

been in Western 


Canadian Prairies Produce Lowest Cost Beef 

Nature so intended that the best quality and the largest 
quantity of wheat could only be secured from a soil that was 
given a few months rest and revivication by conserving 
moisture through a general application of frost. This has 
been the secret of Western Canada's success in winning most 
of the world's championships for small grains. 

To her bracing cold, dry winter, Western Canada can 
point with pride to the development of a race of energetic 
and healthful people, a people proud of their rich heritage, 
and who have demonstrated to the world successful accom- 
plishments in every line of industry and commerce. 

Spring generally opens with a rush, and then begins the 
farmer's busy time. Seed has been prepared, the seeders 

weather the nights are always cool and often accompanied 
by refreshing dews that help to moisten the growing crops 
and stimulate the growth of prairie and cultivated grasses. 
The annual rainfall is sufficient for agricultural purposes, 
the greater part of it coming during the growing season, 
which is a substantial benefit to the farmer. During the 
summer months the average sunshine is over fifteen hours 
a day and the average number of hours of sunshine for the 
year exceeds 2,000. 

The irrigation areas that are being opened up in Southern 
Alberta possess a very fertile soil and attractive climate. With 
assurance of water they will undoubtedly become important 
factors in the farm production of the Dominion. 

and harrows, drawn by heavy draught horses or tractors are 
on the fieH as soon as three or four inches of frost have 
disappeared, and early in April or May, owing to the area 
to be covered, this work is done. Then comes a resting 
period until haying, which is in June. The herds and flocks 
are all in their pasture. With summer practically in the 
lap of spring, preparations are made for harvest, which may 
continue from August until September. The long summer 
days, and the cool nights have brought to perfection the 
world's best wheat and plenty of it.- Then the fall, 
J5^v w 't n its threshing its marketing, and fall plough- 
ing, follows the summer, and the winter will 

set in sometimes in November, and some- 
times later, yet seldom as old timers say, 
"No cold weather until after Christmas." 
The period of greatest heat is in 
the month of July, when as 
high as 1 00 degrees is some- 
times registered, but 
even in the hottest 

Wants to Help Others. — Farming down in Illinois is a well 
known farmer, whose 900 acres, with the aid of a battery of 
tractors and sound farming, gives him a fair return for his 
investment. But farming is a small share of his activities. 
With a million dollars or so at his command, and his banker 
says he has it, he finds plenty of employment otherwise. Yet, 
farming is a hobby with him. His desire to extend his opera- 
tions led him to Western Canada last fall. After an inspec- 
tion of the country, he decided to purchase a half section of land 
at Viking, Alberta, and farm it. 

Arrangements were therefore made through Mr. C. J. Brough- 
ton, of Chicago, the Illinois representative of the 
Canadian Government, for the shipment of an outfit 
to do the work. But the outfit he took was greater 
than was needed for a half-section. Asked the 
reason for taking so much, he replied he was 
so well satisfied with this purchase that he 
intended buying more land, and get it ready 
for a number of his neighbours in whom 
he took an interest, and was willing 
to help get a start in a country 
that with the knowledge of 
farming that they possessed, 
would soon put 
them on easv 

Low Priced Land Essential to Profit 

day one of the greatest 
granaries in the world. 
Then there was scarcely 
any farm live stock in the 
West. Dairying was not 
engaged in at all. To- 
day there are 6,998,317 
farm animals on the 
prairies, of which 88 1 ,898 
are milch cows; and 
dairying is only second 

RECENT announcement 
states that the sale of the first 
section of Canadian Pacific 
land was made forty years ago. 
When you read that the first car- 
load of wheat was shipped from 
Winnipeg forty years ago, the 
changes that have taken place 
since then are matters of 
reminiscence, but yet of in- 
terest. What forty years ago 
was an unknown quantity, 
barren because but little pro- 
duction was attempted, is to- 

Forty years ago scarcely any of the rich soil had been 
brought under cultivation. The farm machinery of the 
time was crude; there were no competent advisers; govern- 
ment experimental farms were a blessing that came years later. 

Yet these hardy pioneers stuck it out, and in forty years 
numbers of them are enjoying their declining days in the 
communities they wrested from the wilderness, prosperous, 
contented, with their children's families gathered about 
them, or seeking their own fortunes still further westward 
or northward. Today are thriving cities and towns where 
bleaching buffalo bones marked the ox trails of forty years 
ago. Mighty freight trains roar down the roads where 
the old carts creaked. Schools are within walking distance 
of every farm house, churches within driving distance of 

every home, with tel- 
ephones and every mod- 
ern convenience, linking 
communities over vast 

Forty years ago the 
Rockies were practically 
an impenetrable barrier, 
the Pacific coast being 
reached from the east 
by ship sailing round 

in importance to grain 
growing in the West. 

Forty years ago the 
shipment of one carload 
of grain was a notable 
historical event. 

Today, Canada ranks 
as the second largest 
wheat-producing coun- 
try in the world, with 
329,185,300 bushels, 90 
per cent of which was 
grown in the three Prai- 

e x rie Provinces, 


Alfalfa is a paying crop 

of which 


Province of Sas- 
more than half. The 
Dominion is today the second largest producer 
of oats, with 530,710,000 bushels, of which 
60 per cent was grown between Winni- 
peg and the Rocky Mountains, and 
the fifth largest producer of bar- 
ley with 63,31 1,000 bushels, 
of which the prairies 
yielded 65 per 

Cape Horn. Manitoba 
had a population of 
62,260 compared with 
613,008 in 1921. Win- 
nipeg was a frontier 
town with 7,987 people, 
and Brandon, regarded 
as a far-flung outpost of 
the West, boasted of a 
few hundred in popula- 
tion. In 1891, it only 
had 3,778. Calgary and 
Edmonton were mere 
trading posts in the northwest territories. Buffalo / !j 
roamed the prairie in their native state. 

Today on these plains are to be seen herds 
of cattle, bands of horses and droves of 
sheep, from any of which can easily be 
selected stock that can carry off , 
premiums, sweepstakes and cham- 
pionships in competition with 
the best in any other 
world. *-fttf$$ff 


Lowest Production Cost Possible, in Canada 

Better probably than any analysis of soil contents, 
to obtain a knowledge of what soils can do, is what 
soils have done in producing crops. In many parts of 
Western Canada there are districts that have been 
continuouslv cropped, for upwards of forty years. In 
the neighborhood of Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg 
this is the case. It was very interesting to read the 
uther day, a portion of the diary of one of the old 
settlers, for while Western Canada has only been 
known to an outside world for less than half a century 
(its first shipment of wheat being made only forty 
years ago) the early settlement goes back to 1812, 
when Lord Selkirk entered the country by way of the 
Hudson Bay. Of its earlier crops, the first planted 
in 1S73, was grown on 10 acres of a homestead. In 1915, 42 
years afterwards, the land being continuously worked all that 
time, he had .57 bushels of wheat to the acre. The crop of 1875 
was eaten by grasshoppers. Three crops were frozen, one 
totally and two partially. One light crop was harvested, and 
all the rest ran 14 to 2S "bushels to the acre, except the bumper 
crop of 1915, with its yield of 57 bushels. 

The following table gives approximate figures for 1921 as 
compared with actual figures of 1919 and 1920: 

Field Crops 


Total Value 


Wheat 52.40$ 

Oats 0.72 

Barley 1.17 

Rye 1.28 

Flax 4.26 

Potatoes 0.81 

Hay and clover. . . .10.99 

Fodder corn 13 .28 

Alfalfa 22.40 


Wheat 2.32 

Oats 0.70 

Barley 1.08 

Rye 1.31 

Beans 4.00 

Mixed grains 1.40 

Flax 4.14 

Potatoes 0.89 

Hay and clover ... 17.00 

Fodder corn 12.50 

Alfalfa i 27. 

age Total Value 

41,420,000, 0.50 
20,137,000 0.80 
5,228,000 1.35 
2,215,000 2.25 
4,266,000 1.36 
1,520,000 19.00 
256,200 22.45 


Total Value. 


000 1.55 
(KID 0.41 
000 0.C6 


SI Ml 




SI 00 





000 10.00, 
,000 18.00 


in hi 


000 1 1 . 25 
000 8.50 



The Sheep Industry Will Pay Well 

The lady possessing a beautiful Persian lamb coat wears it 
with justifiable pride, and becomes the envy of the one not so 
richlv attired. But her Persian lamb garment is wrongly named. 
The lamb from which the fur was taken belonged not to Persia 
but to Bokhara, and is there known as karakul. It is called 
"Persian" through a misconception, which has arisen because the 
fur and wool merchants of Persia, traversing the deserts and wide 
stretches of infertile lands, meet the shepherds from Bokhara, 
obtaining their wool and fur in barter. Thus comes to be 
exported from Persia the higher grade of fur taken from the 
karakul sheep. It is, though, none the less valuable. The 
genuine Persian lamb fur has to be taken from the lamb of the 
karakul sheep while it is only two or three days old. 
^■■^ If not skinned then it cannot be taken at all. It is 
jet black, richly gleaming. It curls in lengths not 
anv longer than the breadth of the little finger. 
The interesting part of the Persian lamb story 
\ is that Canada is now a large producer of 
the genuine article. In several districts 
of Western Canada there are large flocks 
of Karakul sheep. The climate and 
geographical conditions are very 
similar to those of their native 
country. Let run in the 
open they are very 
little trouble. 

The low price to which wool descended in 1921 had a deterrent 
influence on the sheep raisers of Western Canada, but, notwith- 
standing, the reports from the sales corporations indicate that 
there was not the falling off that might have been looked for. 
Small flocks are making their appearance on many farms through- 
out the country. The comparatively cool summers with bright 
clear winter weather, with a total absence of rain, sleet or severe 
storms during the winter, afford ideal conditions, and losses are 

Her First Crop put Woman Farmer on "Easy Street." — 
Mrs. Marj- J. Blackburn, a pioneer woman farmer of Alberta, 
has just added 160 acres to her farm near Hardisty. Coming 
from Eastern Canada, Mrs. Blackburn homesteaded a quarter 
section in 1902. She had two Holstein heifers, a bull 
and S17 in cash. She lived in a tent the first summer 
and in a sod shack in the winter. Her first crop 
put her, as she tells the story, "on easy street." 
In ten years she had a herd of 60 pure-bred 
Holstein cattle and was operating a prosper- 
ous dairy. A fine residence has supplanted 
the sod hut. "I milked my cows, raised 
my cattl", cut hay and stacked it all by 
myself," said Mrs. Blackburn. "I 
started on bare prairie with no 
money, and made good. 1 
worked hard, but the experi- 
ence was wonderful." 


Canadian Wheat, World* s Standard of Perfection 

4 4 ' I "HE history of the world shows no more well balanced 
develcpment of a great country than has been true 
of Canada," says the National City Bank in a sur- 
vey of conditions in the Dominion. "With distances so great 
that only the United States, Russia, and Brazil can readily be 
compared with it, and with natural resources that require 
the hardiest kind of pioneers to bring them to the service 
of the world, it has steadily forged ahead in working out its 

own salvation, 
until today it is 
in a position to 
solidly with- 
stand the great 
strain which the 
post-war has 
brought on." 

The review 
calls attention 

Forestry. — Many of the species of trees which can be used 
on the prairies are very rapid growers, for example, cottonwood, 
willow, Russian poplar and Manitoba maple. Wood large 
enough for fuel can be grown from any of these trees within 
six years. After that time a plantation will increase in value 
and productiveness year by year and will prove one of the best 
investments on the farm. On the Nursery Station at Indian 
Head, Saskatchewan, a plot three-quarters of an acre in extent 
was planted out to Russian poplar in 1906, trees spaced four 
feet apart each way. In 1913 the average height of these trees 
was 23 feet. In 
the fall of 1913 
half the plot was 
cut down and 
yielded Q z /% cords 
of quite fair fuel, 
at the rate of 18 
cords per acre in 
eight years. 

Fruit. — As evi- 
dence that fruit 
can be successfully 

to the fact that Canada has 
been compelled in the last 
three years, to face an 
unprecedented series of 
economic problems, and 
declares that the people 
of the Dominion have met 
everyone of them in a 

and cheaply grown on 
Western Canada prairies, 
the demonstrations made 
in various parts gives suffi- 
cient proof. On some 
farms there are trees which, 
during the season, are well 
laden with apples of excel- 
lent qualitv, plums and 
hybrid " cherries, to say 

spirit that has 
assured their 
successful end- 

The survey, 
which is based 
on reports from 
the bank's cor- 
throughout the 
Lominion, declares, " It is possible to review the Canadian 
situation for 1921 and for 1922 with some assurance." The 
prediction of coming prosperity for Canada is based largely 
on crop conditions, and, incidentally, the bank foresees 
lower living costs for the people of the Dominion. 

The population of Canada is one-half of one per cent of 
the population of the world, and Canada produces 
90 per cent of the world output cf Cobalt, 88 
per cent cf asbestos, 85 per cent of nickel, 32 
per cent of alfalfa and pulp wood, 20 per 
cent of lumber, 20 per cent of salt and dried 
fish, 1 8 per cent of oats, 1 5 per cent of 
potatoes, 12 per cent of silver, 12 
per cent of wheat, 1 1 per cent 
of barley, 4 per cent cf 
gold, and 4 per cent 
of copper. 

nothing of straw- 
berries, raspberries, 
currants, goose- 
berries and other 
bush fruits. The 
statement is made 
by an official of 
the Manitoba 
Government that 
apples would soon 
be grown on every 
farm in the country. 

Game. — Game of all kinds, including wild ducks, wild geese, 
plover, partridge, prairie chicken, is plentiful, and found in 
abundance in all parts of the country. "The northern portions 
of the country are literally flooded with millions of ducks," 
asserts an automobile tourist, and continues, "the numerous 
little lakes are surrounded by reeds and wild rice, in which the 
little ducks are hatched, and often the mother would float on 
the water just beside the trail, seemingly unafraid, with as 
many as 10 or 15 fluffy, brown babies beside her." 

Reading such statements of the development of Western 
Canada as the growth of cultivation from 1 1 million 
acres in 1910 to 30 >^ million acres in 1920 and an 
increase in field crop production of from 4 
millions in 1880 to 636 millions in 1920, it 
might be thought the limit of agricultural 
development had been reached. The 
immensity of the west makes it diffi- 
cult to realize the small area 
of the vast stretches which have 
been brought under pro- ^ 
ductive cultivation. 

"V A? ' 



Wheat 2,711,160 

Oats 1,900,000 

Barley 850,000 

Rye 180.000 

Flax 91,000 

Per acre 

rpace will permit of only a few 
illustrations of the excellent yields 
of crops grown in 1921, but 
these that follow will give a 
good general idea 
of what was generally 

MANITOBA, known as the "Premier" Province of the 
three western grain producing provinces, and to 
which was recently added territory that carried its 
northern boundaries to Hudson Bay, has a record in agri- 
culture of all kinds, that has given it a prominence in the 
eyes of the world. Its agricultural development has been 
fostered by an intense interest on the part of legislators, in 
the establishment of colleges and institutions forwarding 
the cause of farming. 

It may safely be said that, while the growing of wheat has been 
more or less carried on for upwards of one hundred years, it was 
only about forty years ago, that it began to assume anything 
like a commercial venture. It was not possible before that 
time to get grain to market ; settlers were few. Today the world 
knows Manitoba, for from the boundaries of Russia to the 
Antarctic there are those whose life is maintained through eating 
bread made of flour which has been grown from Manitoba wheat. 
Various conditions contribute to the high quality of the grain 
grown in Manitoba, amongst them being soil, climate, moisture, 
long hours of sunshine. 

Seeding and Harvesting Dates. — Taken from the diary of an 
"old timer," the information is obtained that the following were 
dates of seeding and harvesting: 

The 1885-1918 seeding dates on this farm were as follows: 
1885, Mav 11; 1886, April 8; 1887, April 20 (bumber crop); 
1888, April 23; 1889, April 10; 1890, April 24; 1892, Mav 9; 
1893, Mav 4; 1894, May 11; 1895, April 18; 1896, May 29 
(poor crop); 1897, May 3; 1898, April 25; 1899, May 17; 
1900, April 20; 1901, April 29; 1902, April 30; 1903, April 24; 
1904, Mav 6; 1905, April 27; 1906, April 24; 1907, May 13; 
1908, Mav 4; 1909, Mav 10; 1910, April 28; 1911, April 27; 
1912, April 25; 1913, April 23; 1914, April 28; 1915, April 17 
(57 bushels to acre) ; 1916, May 6; 1917, May 3; 1918, April 17. 

The dates for the beginning of wheat harvest were: 1885, 
Aug. 31; 1886, Aug. 7; 1887, Aug, 14; 1888, Sept. 3; 1889, 
Aug. 20; 1890, Aug. 19; 1891, Aug. 31; 1892, Aug. 27; 1893, 
Aug. 21; 1894, Aug. 21; 1896, Sept. 5; 1897, Aug. 23; 1898, 
Aug. 25; 1899, Aug. 28; 1900, Aug. 14; 1901, Aug. 17; 1902, 
Aug. 18; 1903, Aug. 14; 1904, Aug. 25; 1905, Aug. 23; 1906, 
Aug. 13; 1907, Sept. 2; 1908, Aug, 18; 1909, Aug, 18; 1910, 
Aug. 18; 1911, Aug. 18; 1912, Aug. 21; 1913, Aug. 16; 1914, 
Aug. 6; 1915, Aug. 11; 1916, Aug. 11; 1917, Aug. 18. 

The yields of grain in Manitoba for 1921 were about as follows 
and the value of the crop was 893,125,000: 


Dauphin. — Wheat threshing revealed yields of 20 to 30 bushels 
per acre; barley 30 to 40; oats 40 to 60; James Patterson had 
31 bushels of wheat to the acre. 

Swan River. — H. Sims rye went 44 bushels per acre average 
of wheat for the district 24 bushels. 

Benito. — 20 to 45 bushels of wheat to the acre was the thresh- 
ing returns here. 

Inwood. — Fully 75 per cent of the wheat turned out good, 
balance being fair. 

Winnipeg District. — C. E. Howe advises that he had an aver- 
age yield of 22}^ bushels of flax from a 25 acre field. 
• Darlingford. — John Ching, of the Darlingford district, says: 
It takes only 25 "spuds" to make a bushel nowadays, which 
turn the scale at 60 pounds 10 ounces. The largest in the bushel 
weighed 4 pounds 10 ounces, while the smallest was just 2 
pounds. The remaining 22 weighed from 2 pounds Yi ounce 
to 2 pounds 143^ ounces. 

► Cattle. — The day is past when Manitoba depends upon grain 
growing. It was early found that other branches of farming 
industry produced large profits and ample returns. The same 
soil that gave life to the grain would produce feed for cattle, 
and the cattle industry has become a general attachment to 
other work of the farm. 

■ Fodders. — Corn production, while yet in its infancy, shows 
signs of a growth that may before long place Manitoba side by 
side with the northern states where corn is fighting for a place 
with wheat. 

Sufficient experiment has already been made to warrant 
farmers in a number of districts to go rather extensively into 
its production. The erection of silos is occupying the attention 
of a great many progressive farmers. Sunflower production is 
taken up. The growth is luxurious and the yield satisfactory, 
as high as twenty-five tons to the acre being recorded. Native 
grasses amply provide for the raising and fattening of cattle. 
Tame grasses, such as timothy, clover, rye, brome and alfalfa, 
thrive wonderfully. 

Dairying. — The fame that Manitoba wheat has achieved is 
that which the Manitoba butter maker is endeavouring to 
reach. There is everything necessary in the Province itself to 
make dairying a successful accomplishment — water, grass, 
climate, freedom from tuberculosis, strict examination of herds, 
a gratuitous paternalism by the Government in methods of 
education by experienced teachers, and grades which are made 
uniform throughout all the provinces. In Manitoba last year 
there were 53 creameries. 

Potatoes. — -A short distance west of Winnipeg there is located 
a farm that can make the proud boast of being the largest 
potato farm in the whole of Canada. Three hundred acres of 
potatoes were cultivated last year. 

Honey. — Manitoba's honey production for 1921 amounted 
to 903,000 pounds, derived from 14,721 colonies of bees. As 
compared with 7,593 a year ago. 

Tobacco. — Tobacco growing is the latest phase of agriculture 
introduced into Northern Manitoba. Messers. Jacob and 
Guspin, two Belgians, who experimented with it last year, 
produced a tobacco said to be the equal to the Quebec 

Gardens. — A description of a Western Canada garden 
as it appeared in a Winnipeg paper paints splendidly ^ 
the sweet peppers large in size and even choicer in . 
quality than those imported from the South, a single 
plant producing in one season from three to four _ 
dozen peppers. "The corn plots are among the 
most interesting bits of the gardens, where 
are developed the Golden Bantam, 
Grant Golden, and Howling Mob. 
But perhaps the melon patches 
are the most fascinating spots 
in the garden, for here mel- 
lowed by Manitoba's 
suns lie scores of 



Small Capital Reaps a Satisfactory Reward 

Montreal Musks, Honey Dew, and nutmeg melons 
and water-melons by the score. 

There are many other things to see, the daily pick 
of ripe tomatoes is some 500 or 600 pounds of 
beautifully smooth crimson spheres, neatly packed in 
boxes ready for shipment. 

There are pumpkins weighing at least 100 pounds 
and not yet full grown, and vegetable marrows, that 
will weigh 40 to 50 pounds and are a rich dark green 
when ripe. Peeping from their circles of gray green 
leaves are cauliflowers like mounds of snow. There 
are huge beds of Chinese cabbage and its second 
cousin Swiss chard. There are acres of carrots, pars- 
nips, beans, onions, and what not, and last but not 
least the great bed of "ever-bearing" strawberries, 
with their blossoms, green fruit and fully ripened 
berries all on the same plant. 

The artistic as well as the useful has been cared 
for, and across a quaint rustic bridge one goes from 
the lovely flower garden and lawns of the house- 
place, with their shelter of elms and oaks, to the 
sweet pea and aster garden, a very riot of bloom. 

Poultry. — Hens, ducks, geese, tur- 
keys, are successfully raised. To this 
industry the farmer's wife gives par- 
ticular attention and by means of it 
she is able to build up a very com- 
fortable income in addition to that 
derived from the other farm 
operations. There is a splendid 
market in the cities and towns, 
with a large exportable demand. 

Climate. — Manitoba possesses a cli- 
mate which is partic- ^^^^^^^^^ 
ularly adapted to the ^■"■"■J -1 
production of a heal- 
thy, vigorous people. 
Spring and autumn 
are delightful seasons 
of moderate tempera- 
ture and bright sun- 
shine. The summer 
is warm, the mercury 
frequently rising to 
between 90 and 100 
degrees, but the warm 
days are tempered 
by nights which are 
invariably cool and 
comfortable. The 
long summer even- 
ings, when the sky 
remains bright until 
10 o'clock or later, 
are a most enjoyable 
feature of the sum- 
mer climate. The 
average rainfall is 
sufficient for the pro- 
duction of all cereal 
crops and the growing 

of field roots, garden stuff, and fodders of great variety. 

Water is to be had in abundance everywhere. Shallow wells, 
eight to twenty feet, give an excellent supply of good water, 
while drilled and bored wells give certain plentiful quan- 
tities. The rivers and the small streams fed by springs 
^ give assurance of water in nearly all the districts. 

Taxation is not exorbitant. There is none on 
^ buildings, live stock, implements or improve- 

ments on the farm. Taxes are devoted 
to maintenance and construction of roads, 
schools and such other public utilities 
as a growing population demands. 
Soil. — Beyond the statement that 
the soil is almost generally a 
friable black loam, varying 
depth from a foot 
to four and five 

Vegetables are all of extra quality in size, hardiness and yield 

feet, and resting on a chocolate coloured clay, 
little more need be said, when there is pointed out 
the evidence of continued good crops year after year, 
without the aid of artificial fertilizing, although this 
is not always recommended. There does not seem 
to be any end to its ability to produce. Fed by 
sufficient rains in the growing season, and by long 
hours of bright sunlight and consequent nitrogen, it 
goes on, year in and year out, giving ample results 
for the labour. 

Land prices in Manitoba are low, but they are 
bound to increase. Prices run from $50 to $100 per 
acre for improved farms and proportionately less for 
raw land. These lands will soon command much 
higher prices than they do today. 

Social Conditions. — A network of railways now 
provides easy transportation facilities to all the prairie 
cities as well as to the outside world. The motor 
car, the telegraph, the extension of good roads and 
the universal use of the rural telephone have robbed 
even the remote prairie districts of any isolation. 
There are travelling libraries, travelling motion picture 
outfits, boys' and girls' clubs and 
women's institutes. Agricultural fairs 
are held in all the principal commun- 
ities. In addition to their educa- 
tional value they have a distinct 
social side. 

Social gatherings in the school 
houses, barn dances, picnics, outing par- 
ties, and all pastimes usually indulged 
in in older countries, form an agree- 
able condition to Manitoba farm life. 

Education. — Pri- 
mary or public 
schools are free to all 
children of school age, 
irrespective of relig- 
ious denomination . 
In rural districts the 
consolidated school 
idea is growing in 
I popularity. 

High Schools and 
Collegiate Institutes 
a are available to pupils 
I practically w i t h o u t 
jj charge. The Univer- 
sity of Manitoba, is 
the oldest institution 
of its kind in Western 

Churches of all de- 
nominations are to be 
found, even in remote 
settlements, carrying 
into these districts the 
privilege of worship- 
ping at the shrine of 
one's particular faith. 
Electricity for the 

Farm. — There is in Manitoba a power commission, vested with 
very wide power in extending the system throughout the rural 
districts of the Province. The farmers along the power lines 
will avail themselves of this excellent and cheap means cf 
getting light, heat, and power. 

Telephones. — Rural telephone service is general. To 
those who know its value, it will be realized 
what an advantage this service is to the farmers 
of the Province. 

Fuel. — There is no scarcity of fue in the 
Province. The mines of Alberta and 
Saskatchewan are prolific providers and 
coal of excellent quality is laid down 
at an exceedingly low figure. In 
many parts of the Province 
there is a vast supply of 
wood, which, cut 


during the winter months, provides employ- 
ment for a large number of men. It is shipped 
to the towns and cities. Permits are given 
to settlers which allow them to go to the 
woods owned by the Government, and cut 
their own supply. In addition to this, it is 
hoped that in the near future there will be oil 
finds that will doubtless be made use of as 
fuel, or directing power in factories and 
farm work. 

Industries. — During the past year 71 dif- . 

ferent enterprises were started in Winnipeg, aggregating an 
investment of $1,000,000. Among them were factories for the 
manufacture of linen, garden implements, cabinets, electric 


"Now on our lengthened border-line 
We give but one glad countersign — 
This: "Who goes there?" "A friend! 

A friend I" 
Be it the same till time shall end — 
And let us to all nations prove 
That nations can as brothers love." 


IT has generally been conceded that farming 
is a man's job. It has long been considered 
that a woman's place on the farm was in 
the house, with a few attendant duties, look- 
ing after the chickens and the garden. But 
times are changing. 

Some years ago a family located a 160-acre 
farm in the Oak Lake district, Manitoba. 
Later the father died, leaving to his two 
daughters and aged wife a mortgaged quarter 
section. Instead of selling the effects and 
moving to town to take employment, the girls decided to 
work the place. 

While the mother looked after the household duties the 

appliances, lamps, chemical products, radiators, wood carving, 
brooms, cigars and caps. The growing of hemp in a large way 
has been successfully carried on in some districts. This will 
mean the establishment of twine and other kindred factories 
into which hemp goes largely. 

The population of Manitoba is 613,008 as compared witn 
in 1911, an increase of 34 3^ per cent. Number 
farmers in 1921 was 55,184 and in 1916 was 45,263. 
Manitoba in the past year has increased its wealth, 
added to its population, seen large sales of farm 
lands at increased prices, business was good. 
The Government has given special attention 
to agriculture and not overlooked the 
social side of farm life, which is a 
phase of farm existence that 
interests the "women folk." 
£w Unless they are satis- 
• y.-' - tied, the man's part 

. J&%> + is difficult - 

daughters did the farm work. They did the ploughing, harrowing, 
seeding, haying, harvesting, stooking, feeding and other farm 
operations. Except at threshing time, the getting out of 
wood, the help of man was never sought. Instead of a 160- 
acre place, with seven horses and ten cattle, which they started 
with, they have a 1,120-acre farm, twenty-five head of 
heavy horses and nearly a hundred head of cattle, 
mostly pure breds. Their farm buildings, equip- 
ment, and well-kept fields are an object to 
many in any country. 

Their accomplishment has been profitable 
and pleasant; they have enjoyed every 
home advantage. They are entertain- 
ing and bright, and have all the 
feminine charm of womanhood. 
Their occupation has not 
given them a mascu- 
line character or 




Hon. W. M. Martin, a former Premier, in an address 
delivered last fall, said: "The history of the old 
Northwest, which is the history of our province, is graph- 
ically romantic. With our early history is identified the 
Hudson's Bay Company and the colorful exploits of the 
Royal Mounted. From 1870 until 1905, when the Province 
was in process of formation, the part played by railway con. 
struction in its development can scarcely be exaggerated." 

Referring to the vast extent of the Province, Premier Martin 
pointed out that Saskatchewan was larger than any other 
European country except Russia, although smaller than some 
other Canadian provinces. Only half the vast provincial areas, 
he asserted, had any settlement at all. 

Seventy-two per cent of the people of the Province resided 
on the land, which made it the most rural province in Canada. 

The Premier traced the great growth of the grain industry 
in the Province, emphasizing the wealth accruing to the Domin- 
ion from prairie products. In conclusion he referred to the great 
possibilities for mineral, fisheries and lumbering development in 
the northern portions of the Province at present only sparsely 
settled and little known. 

A Tourist Speaks. — Touring through Western Canada by 
automobile has become an educative pastime, full of intense 
interest and pleasure, one that gives health, restores and builds 
up courage, and makes "life worth the living." It is not an 
unusual sight for the farmer to see passing his door, or stopping 
for a meal, an auto loaded with tourists, and bearing the license 
number of some far off state, the occupants being tourists or 
land seekers, or else on their way to the farm they have pur- 
chased. The excellent roads throughout all parts of the country 
lend themselves wonderfully to this means of transportation. 
Crossing the boundary line that divides the United States from 
Canada is easily negotiated, the owner of the car having satis- 
fied the boundary officials that he has met all the require- 

If en tour, the car receives a permit for a certain period. 
rr On the expiry of this it is expected he will return with 
the car. If on the way to complete settlement on 
land, the car, if it has been owned for six months 
v previous to entering Canada, and for use on the 
\ farm to be occupied the car will have free admis- 
sion as a portion of settlers' effects. Hun- 
dreds of settlers are now occupying 
Western Canada lands, having made 
their way from as far off as Texas 
and Oklahoma by means of auto. 
In this way they save con- 
^ siderable on a long rail- 
n^^V ^^^k^ way haul. 

Crops. — While there were adverse conditions in many parts 
of the Province, which materially cut down the estimated yield 
of grain in June and July, there was harvested the second largest 
crop of wheat ever produced in the Province, while the oat 
crop was the largest. Barley was the third largest crop, while 
rye took a prominent place. Notwithstanding that rains came 
at the closing of harvest and just at and during threshing time, 
the quality of the grain was not materially affected, and was of 
a higher standard than for many years. A report of the Bureau 
of Statistics of the Province gives the official yields: 

Wheat, 11,651,622 acres, average yield 14.9 bushels per acre, 
total production, 174,424,781 bushels. 

Oats 4,903,000 acres yield per acre, 35; total production, 
171,115,000 bushels. 

Barley 427,798 acres, yield 26.7 production 11,455,961. 
Flax 366,858 acres, yield 8.2, production 3,030,633. 
Rye, 1,038,507 acres, yield, 13.6, production 14,140,227 
bushels. . 

Vonda. — The average yield of wheat 18 to 25 bushels. 

Weyburn. — Yield of wheat about 20 bushels per acre. 

Assiniboia. — Yield of wheat here was reported at 32 bushels. 

Goodwater. — Fall rye yielded 44 bushels per acre, while spring 
rye ran from 20 to 30 bushels. 

Pasqua. — -From 98 acres of wheat W. L. Crandall got an 
average of 25 bushels to the acre. 

Red Deer Hill. — W. H. Gange got over 50 bushels of wheat 
per acre off of breaking. Thos. Bibby's wheat went 44 bushels. 

Lily Plain. — A. field of oats went 92 bushels per acre. 

Kelvington. — Average yield of wheat was 30 bushels; oats 
75; barley 55; potatoes 350. 

Leask. — Wheat yielded up to 45 bushels per acre. Yields of 
20 to 25 bushels were common. 

Carlyle. — 15 bushels of wheat per acre; barley 35; oats 25. 

Yorkton. — Threshing returns showed a yield of from 17 to 
25 bushels of wheat per acre. 

Moosomin. — -14 bushels of wheat per acre. 

Langbank. — 16 bushels of wheat and 30 to 40 of barley reported. 

Carmichael. — Summer fallowed ground gave 20 to 30 bushels 
of wheat per acre. The average yield throughout was 15 

North Battleford. — In every part of the district the crops were 
perfect. This applies to all portions of the country of which 
North Battleford is the centre. 

Aberdeen. — D. McKay had 480 acres in wheat and his return 
was an average of 40 bushels per acre. The same story came 
from the Huffman farms. Generally the reports from here gave 
yields of wheat at 20 to 40 bushels. 

Laird. — J. B. Peters had an average yield of 34 bushels wheat 
per acre from a large field and as high as 48 bushels per acre 
from smaller field. 

Mango. — Mr. Chas. Johns threshed 150 acres of oats that 
gave 107 bushels to the acre. His wheat went 38 bushels. 

Leask. — Some wheat in this district went 45 bushels per 
acre. Yields of 20 to 30 bushels were common. 

Star City. — The general yield of wheat here was between 30 
and 40 bushels per acre. Carrot River district reported 
similarly. r^'""^ 

Radisson. — 20 bushels of wheat to the acre here. 

Cudworth. — Fifty-two hundred bushels of wheat 
off 170 acres of rented land at Cudworth, Sask., 
is the gratifying result of the farming operations 
of S. M. Peterson, tenant. 

Lockwood. — Wheat yield in this district 
was good. Many farms — and large 
ones at that — gave 25 to 30 bushels 
per acre. The average could well 
be place d at above 25 bushels. 

Nokomis. — 25 bushels 
per acre may well ,,c3^P"^ 
be said to 


have been the average of wheat yields here. Several farmers 
had as high as 35 bushels. Oats were good and barley fair. 

Tisdale. — 30. (XX) bushels of wheat were grown by Messrs. 
Buckle <y Morgan, which averaged 47 bushels to the acre. 

Luseland and Unity. — Wheat average about 20 bushels per 
acre. Rosetown to Saskatoon, wheat average about 20. 

Wilkie. — Wheat ran all the way from 11 to 21 bushels per 
acre, with an average of about 15. 

J. Brown, Davis, 50 bushels; S. J. Faris, Birch Hills, 50 bushels; 
T. Williams, Hoey, 54 bushels; F. Williams, Hoey, 45 bushels; 
J. D. McMahon, Shellbrook, 40 bushels wheat, 65 bushels of 
oats; T. H. Pettet, Hoey, 51 bushels; H. G. Young, Brancepeth, 
40 bushels; H. Couldwell, Lilv Plain, 23 bushels (hailed); Gar- 
lach Brothers, Birch Hills, 39 bushels; E. Tool, Wakaw, 50 
bushels; W. L. Potter, Wakaw, 43 bushels; S. Bunta, Wakaw, 
40 bushels; H. Anderson, Pleasant Valley, 34 bushels; Morren 

The Farm Home of Hon. Mr. Motherwell, Canadian Minister of Agriculture 

Paynton. — About 2S bushels of wheat grading No. 2 was the 
average in this district. 

Lenora Lake. — Anton Ramble had wheat that went 31 bushels 
per acre, while others in the district had 34 to 37 bushels. In 
referring to it Mr. Ramble said: "I have been farming all my 
life, but never raised such crops as I have here." 

Macklin. — Majority of the wheat graded Xo. 1 and the yield 
about 30 bushels. 

Canora. — Thresh- 
ing returns gave an 
average yield of 
wheat at 25 bushels; 
oats 50 to 70. 

D. Chatwin threshed 
6,300 bushels of 
wheat from a quarter 
section, believed to 
be a record. W. F. 
Hodgson threshed 
681 bushels from 
13 l A acres, measured 
land, sown to Kitch- 
ener wheat. A. 
Quimbj' harvested 
727 bushels oats off 
7 acres. The And- 
rews' farm yielded 
50 bushels of wheat 
per acre. Many 
other good yields 
were reported in this 

Montmartre. — The average of wheat in this district was 15 
bushels, but graded low. 

Morse. — Average of wheat for the district, 12 to 20 bushels. 
Saltcoats. — Yield: Wheat 20; oats 45. 

Edam. — A correspondent writing from Edam, North Battle- 
ford district, says that the 1921 crops in that section of Saskatche- 
wan were the best ever harvested there. Wheat yielded as high 
as 40 bushels per acre, while oats ran up as high as 100 bushels 
in many cases. Rye also gave big returns. 
p» — Marcelin. — O. Benoit had wheat last year that went 62 
\ bushels. 

; 4^ Fiapot. — Wheat yields 12 to 16 bushels per acre. 

Gull Lake. — Conservative estimates place the 
average yield of wheat in this district at 10 to 
15 bushels. 

Samburg. — J. Loobest grew oats in 1921 
~iat yielded 112 bushels to the acre, and 
O. Granrude's barley went 72 bushels. 
Other Saskatchewan yields 
taken from the Prince 
Albert district reports, 
were : 

Rural Schools in Every Settled Community 

and Puffer, Henriburg, 41 bushels; H. Waller, Shellbrook, 30 
bushels; 0. Granute, Coxby, 72 bushels (barley); J. Golumnun, 
Wakaw, 30 bushels; W. H. Iieuidy, Wakaw, 31 bushels; Bradley 
Brothers, Claytonville, 62 bushels. 

Dairying. — That Saskatchewan has turned the corner in dairy- 
ing is evident from the fact that the past year shows a total 
estimated dairy production of $23,455,774 an increase of §412,725 

over the previous 
year. The output 
of creamery butter 
increased over 16,- 
000 pounds, and 
there were 10,000 
more gallons of ice 
cream manufactured 
than in the previous 
year. The total 
value of dairy cattle 
is estimated at over 

The 58 creamery 
plants in operation 
during 1921 repre- 
sented a total in- 
vestment including 
equipment, of nearly 

Grain. — The fame 
that Saskatchewan 
grain has achieved 
will never be disturb- 
ed. The soil and 
the conditions that 

today have given it supremacy in this respect, will always remain. 




Commenced General 


Commenced Complete 

1919 April 17 April 24 July 28 August 18 September 2 

1918 April 7 April 15 August 15 September 7 September 15 

1917 April 27 May 5 August 18 September 7 September 14 

1916 April 15 April 21 August 15 September 11 August 22 

1915 April 4 April 10 August 19 September 7 August 19 

Within the past few years, not satisfied with what has already 
been accomplished, its farmers have gone into other 
branches of agriculture that are giving it a larger 
place in the picture. 

Oat seeding begins about May 4, and finishes / 
about May 7. The value of the crop of Saskat- 
chewan for 1921, was §265,520,000. 

Live Stock. — Rich as is the soil, unequalled 
for growing grain of the highest quality— 
this kind of farming is not followed 
exclusively. For the greatest success 
it should be combined with the 
raising of live stock, and well 
bred stock at that. Records 
show that there was 



produced from grain in one year $260,000,000, while the live 
stock production and live stock products, comprising exports of 
but ter, eggs and poultry exceeded $300,000,000. Western Canada 
rattle are sought for, not only because they are so easily 
raised, but they possess the bone, muscle, and size that only 
conditions such as are abundant there could possibly furnish. 
Packing and cold storage plants pay the prevailing market 
prices for hogs or beef cattle, and obviate long shipment. 
Cattle in 1921 numbered 1,563,332, an increase of 339,280 
over 1920. The greatest increase was in milch cows, now 
421,706, or 70,000 more than in the previous year. 

Sheep. — -It would be useless repetition to speak of the luxuri- 
ant grasses of Saskatchewan, and of the adaptability of the 
climate to sheep-raising. What has been done, and is being 
done, the wide-spread interest that is taken by farmers in all 
parts of the Province, make a lengthy story unnecessary. 

Hogs. — Swine are contributing largely to the r- — — - 7r _- 

income, and great advancement has recently I 
taken place in bringing forward the best of the 
best breeds. Interest may 
be said to be evenly 
divided between 
the Yorkshires 
and the 

Fuel. — Lignite coal is possibly the chief fuel used by the 
majority of settlers in the rural districts. There are 45 mines in 
the Province. There are rich deposits of it in the southeastern 
section of the Province. A process for carbonizing and briquet- 
ting this fuel has been evolved. In the northern part of the 
Province there are extensive areas of bush and timber, from 
which settlers may draw their supply, affording inexpensive fuel 
and fencing. 

Topography and Soil. — The greater portion of Saskatchewan 
comprising the territory now open to settlement may be said 
to be a region of rolling prairie, interrupted by ridges and valleys. 
It is a plain, developed on nearly flat-lying, soft, strata clay, 
shales, and friable sandstones. The outstanding characteristic 
of these soils is the large proportion of vegetable matter and 
nitrogen they possess, to which they primarily owe their remark- 
able fertility and lasting quality. They contain abundant 
stores of the mineral elements of plant food. 
It is the large percentgage of nitrogen-holding, 
humus-forming material and its intimate in- 
corporation with the sand and 
clay, that give to these 
\ soils their superiority, 
" , chemically, and 


Lately, how- 
ever, importa- 
tion of sires 
and proved 
Durocs and Po 

land-Chinas, as ^fljjjffepj^^' well as Hampshires, 
may cause the breeders of the two first 

named classes to look after their laurels. Barley 

is the finishing feed, while the growing process is greatly 
enhanced by the cultured rape and other green feeds. 

Poultry. — The great interest being shown by farmers in poultry 
is reflected in the demand for pure-bred birds for breeding 
purposes. Chickens, geese, ducks, and turkeys are included 
in this demand. 

Honey.— Bee culture is practically a new industry in Sas- 
katchewan. Those who have ventured into it pronounce them- 
selves as well satisfied. 

Fruits. — Small fruits grow wild in abundance. Cranberries, 
strawberries, gooseberries, raspberries, and currants are success- 
fully grown. Experiments with apples are now under way. 
Crab apples are easily grown. Each summer, farmers and their 
families pick quantities of fruit, preserving sufficient for every 
day of the ensuing year and yet, each season, thousands of 
bushels go to waste for the lack of people to consume 

Hay and Pasture. — The excellent quality of native 
£\ grasses that sustained huge herds of buffalo, 
antelope, elk and moose in the days when they 
roamed the prairies, remains today. Timothy, 
brome, western rye, alfalfa and clover are 
being extensively produced as fodder crops 
for cattle. Fodder corn is also grown in 
many places. The prairie grasses make 
a very nutritious hay, which contains 
native legumes such as wild' vetch, 
increasing the protein or fat- 
^fo, tening content and greatly 
improving it in 

Lands. — 

wan land is 
of two classes, 
the open prairie 
land for extens- 
ive grain growing, 
and the park areas f° r mixed farming. 

Free homesteads of 160 acres eacn are st ^ 

available in the northern ^»!y parts of the agricul- 

tural belt, and a limited number in the southwestern 

part of the Province, which are practically free of timber. 
The former are chiefly bush lands and the latter are mostly 
rough, where the choice prairie homesteads have been practically 
all taken up. This class of land is now a purchase proposi- 
tion, prices varying from $20 to $30 an acre for raw prairie, 
and from $35 to $100 an acre according to imDrovement and 

Climate. — The climate is recognized as one of the Province's 
most valuable assets. Not only is it healthful and invigorating 
but its conditions are such as tend to stimulate the agricultural 
possibilities of the land, especially in respect to grain growing, 
and raising live stock. During the summer months the average 
sunshine is sixteen hours a day, and the average number of 
hours of sunshine for the year exceeds 2,000. 

Since the glacial period these prairies have been continuously 
covered with grasses and leguminous herbage. As layer 
upon layer are pressed down by succeeding growths 
they have formed a soil of remarkable depth and i 
wonderful fertility. High diurnal temperatures, 
long days, and a sufficient rainfall during the ^ 
growing season are conducive to a most lux- 
uriant growth. The winter season, with 
its dry cold, practically locks up the . 
stores of plant food from the autumn 
until the season opens again. , 

Water Supply. — Good water , dmESB8 
for domestic and general 
use can be obtained 
from wells 



Become an Owner and Get All the Profit 

it a depth of ten to thirty feet. In some districts it is 
i vessary to go considerably deeper in order to be assured of 
i definite quantity. There are large and small fresh water 
lakes throughout the Province. 
Education. — The education system is thorough and com- 
tvhensive. The chief institution is the Provincial University, 
situated at Saskatoon, and the necessary opportunities for 
leamiaa reach out in a general way to the rural schools, all 
>f which, from the University down, come under the jurisdiction 
if the Department of Education of the Provincial Government. 
In all the primary schools education is free. 

the traveller. As far as external indications suggest, the 
spiritual welfare of the people is in no more danger of suffering 
neglect than the intellectual. 

Saskatchewan has 7 cities, 78 towns, 337 villages, 301 rural 
municipalities; 100,000,000 acres of forest; 115,000 farms; a 
sodium sulphate deposit of 6 million tons; 225 factories; cop- 
per, gold, silver, gypsum, ore, salt deposits, has eight 
times in nine years won the world's sweepstakes for the 
best wheat, as well as many first prizes and champion- 
ships for other cereals, vegetables and grasses; produced 
in 1920 farm products valued at §525,736,771; and last year 

There are about 4,500 public or primary schools in the Prov- 
ince, and 24 high schools or collegiate institutes, where for very 
small fees students may prepare for entrance to the University, 
and normal schools for the training of teachers, and well equipped 
high schools at many centres. There are sixteen Consolidated 
Schools in operation. 175,000 clnldren attend schools, com- 
pared with 99,100 in 1910. 

At the College of Agriculture, affiliated with the University 
of Saskatchewan, young men may acquire special training in 
farming, and young women receive instructions in domestic 
science. Technical education in other branches of in- 
dustry is also provided for by the Province. All the 
cities and towns and some of the larger villages 
t have free public libraries. 

Religion. — Religious denominations are widely 

*— — represented, which is only to be expected 

considering the various sources of the 
cosmopolitan population. In the prin- 
cipal cities and towns some very 
fine edifices are to be seen, while 
throughout the rural districts the 
number and excellence of 
the church buildings is 
a pleasant sur- 
prise to 

produced nearly 25 million dollars worth of dairy products. 
Population 761,390. 

Altitude. — Saskatoon, 1,571 feet; Prince Albert, 1,414; Battle- 
ford, 1,622; Swift Current, 2,432; Regina, 1,885; Kamsack, 1,445. 

Precipitation. — The annual precipitation since 1910 ranges as 
follows: 1910, 12.67 inches; 1911, 18.23; 1912, 16.94; 1913, 
13.95; 1914, 13.94; 1915, 12.56; 1916, 21.17; 1917, 11.29. 
The heaviest rainfall occurs in the month of June when 
mostly needed. 

The inability to secure holdings, or the prohibitive prices of 
such, has brought peoples to the Dominion not only from 
the British Isles and the United States, but from prac- 
tically every country on the globe. Nothing is more 
foolhardy than to commence operations without a 
rudimentary knowledge of farming; men lacking 
experience should work for a season upon a 
farm before starting out for themselves. 
But granted then that a commence- 
ment has been made in the right direc- 
tion, with the right idea and the 
right intent, there will be no 
need to have any appre- 
hension of the suc- 
cess of the ultimate 
issue . 


KNOWN as the "Foothill Province," backed on the 
west by the Reeky Mountains, and on the south lying 
a portion cf the state of Montana, the Province of 
Alberta occupies a commanding position. It has developed 
resources in agriculture cf known quantity, while its unde- 
veloped resources consist of minerals of wonderful value, 
of oils, of timber and of ccal that will shortly give it an 
asset that cannot be estimated. 

At present its agricultural wealth has placed it in the proud 
position of attracting thousands of the best settlers. While 
these lands are gradually being taken up there is within its 
boundary limits, varying from 250 to 400 miles in width east 
and west and 750 miles north and south, an area of 158,900,000 
acres; 81,300,000 of which may be said to be desirable agri- 
cultural land. 

Opportunities in Land. — To the party with large or little 
capital, Alberta offers a great variety of opportunity. Fifteen 
million acres of unoccupied land have been recently surveyed 
and are open to entry, and the average cost of improved land 
is moderate. The average price of farm land is $27 per acre. 
The buyer will probably pay $20 per acre for good unimproved 
land, and up to $75 per acre for highly improved land well 

While the southern part of the Province is given over largely 
to wheat raising, wheat is successful as far as settlement has 
been established northwards. There is still some ranching in 
Southern Alberta. 

Mixed farming is carried on over the whole of Alberta, but 
reaches its highest perfection in Central Alberta, with Edmon- 
ton as centre. The oat crop is the most important grain crop 
on the black lands of this area, but wheat, barley, rye and flax 
all succeed well. Oats frequently yield one hundred bushels 
per acre. 

Water System. — The chief rivers are the Peace and 
Athabasca draining towards the north, and the North and South 
Saskatchewan flowing easterly and uniting in the Province of 
Saskatchewan. Important tributaries of the Peace River are 
the Smoky, Little Smoky, Wapiti and Pouce Coupe. The 
tributaries of the Saskatchewan are the Red Deer, Bow. 
Belly and Old Man. A small area of the southern 
part cf the Province is drained by the Milk River, 
which enters Alberta from Montana and runs east 
for about sixty miles a short distance from the 
International Boundary. It finally enters the 
United States. 

The Province is dotted with lakes. From 
north to south there are numerous 
^^^^^ email lakes which are important and 
d for stock watering. In 
Central Alberta there are a 
number of rather import- 
ant lakes such as 

Sullivan, Gull, Cook- 
ing, Wabamum, Lac Ste. Anne, Birch 
and Beaver. Farther north the bodies of water 
are larger. The largest of the lakes are Lesser Slave, 
Athabasca, Lac La Biche, Calling and Hay lakes, while much of 
the rest of it can be brought into use by drainage and other 
forms of reclamation. The unoccupied lands are principally in 
the centre and north and it is towards these sections that settlers 
seeking free lands, are moving. 

Temperature. — Records for 1920 at various points in the Prov- 
ince were as follows: 


j January 


| March 

| April 







1 November I! 
1 II 


Medicine Hat. . 

Max. . 













Min . . 













Lethbridge .... 

Max. . 













Min.. . 














Max. . 













Min. . . 













Edmonton .... 

Max. . 













Min. . . 













Red Deer 

Max. . 













Min. . . 













Grande Prairie. 

.Max. . 













Min. . . 













Precipitation for a ten-year period: 









1918| 1919 


10 yr. 

Lethbridge . 



































10.03 7.66 




Calgary . . . 



















Edmonton . 



















Peace River 













Ft. Ver- 

milion. . . 



















Climate. — The prairie of Alberta has fine, heavy showers in 
the growing season of May and June, and a heavy top of native 
bunch and buffalo grasses which cure on the stem in July. The 
climate makes it possible for stock to graze outside throughout 
the year. 

In Central Alberta, which is beyond the Red Deer River, 
with Edmonton as the centre, the snow lies more steadily and 
furnishes sleighing for four or five months in the year. Tem- 
peratures are somewhat lower in winter and the seasons slightly 
later, but the winter is subject to relaxations due to mild winds 
from the southwest, and the same is true of the most northerly 
parts of the Province. This makes the climate of Alberta more 
moderate than interior climates generally are. 

The moisture of the Province varies between ten and twenty 
inches, and 60 per cent of it falls within the growing season, 
that is, May, June, and July. The harvest season is a 
time of quick ripening. The autumn is extremely 
pleasant but somewhat dry. The air is exhilarating 
and favourable to activity in either work or play, a 
Sixty per cent of the days are sunshiny. 

Irrigation.— In Southern Alberta, large 
areas are being brought under irrigation both 
by private companies and by the farmers 
themselves under a policy of reclama 
tion adopted by the Provincial Gov- 
ernment. The private projects 
include those of the C.P.R. cast 
of Calgary at Bassano, 
irrigating 500,000 
acres, and 


Sunshine and Soil, a Secret of Success 

east and south cf Lethbridge, also irrigating a considerable 
area, and the project of the Canada Land and Irrigation Co. 
of Medicine Hat which eventually will irrigate 200,000 
acres northwest of Medicine Hat. Farmers desiring irri- 
gation may organize into irrigation districts, and if the 
project is feasible and justifiable, the Government will guar- 
antee the district bonds fcr construction. A project is now 
under way, north cf Lethbridge, and others are being sur- 
veyed. Alfalfa has produced 3H tons per acre. There 
are now considerable areas of irrigable land in the hands 
of farmers who wish to sell portions of their farms, not 
because they wish to leave the country, but because they 
are holding more land than can be handled under irrigation 
conditions. There is thus afforded an excellent opportunity 
for those who wish to purchase. Low prices are established 
and easy terms given. 

The total acreage in crops including all grains, hay crops, 
fodder and roots, somewhat exceeds 10,000,000 acres and there 
was new breaking to the extent of 517,455 acres. The number 
of farmers in Alberta, on the basis of the 1921 census, is shown 
to be S6,0S4. 

At the deflated prices of the late fall of 1921, the estimate of 
the value of the crops of the past year is placed at $125,500,000. 



The various grain and other crops is shown as follows: Wheat, 
acres sown, 4,649,000, bushels 53,000,000; oats, 2,139,000, 
bushels, 64,000,000; barley 523,000, bushels 11,650,000; rye, 
138,000, bushels 2,000,000. 

Next to wheat, the most valuable crop in the Province was 
oats, estimated at about $30, 000,000 for both grain crop and 
green feed. The average yield was 33 bushels per acre, the 
total being 88,000,000 bushels. The average yield of barley was 
23 bushels; rye 15 bushels. Timothy and clover are valued at 
$4,548,330, with an average of one ton to the acre. Over 36,000 
tons of alfalfa were produced from 20,825 acres. 

The potato crop is estimated at 6,833,141 bushels, worth 
$3,416,570 at current prices. 

According to the Dominion bureau statistics, Alberta had a 
total farm crop production last year of the value of $204,291,500. 

Live stock owned bv Alberta farmers is valued at $136,589,320. 
The horse population of 916.110 is accountable for $36,660,400 
of this and 423,838 milch cows for $29,668,660. Swine are put 
at $10,337,724. 

Animals and fowls slaughtered and sold brought in $17,290,- 
416 for the farmers, and eggs were sold to the value of $8,000,000. 
Horticultural products and garden stuff are totaled at $1,600,000. 

Dairying. — The dairy products of Central Alberta are another 
of its main farm yields. For several years past it has been 
recognized that this is a pre-eminently good dairying 
country, and the high reputation in which Alberta 
butter is now regarded all over Canada, and even 
beyond Canada, is proof that the industry fits 
the natural conditions of the Province. There 
were 423,838 dairy cows in 1921, a 30 per 
cent increase over 1920. Cheese had 
140 per cent of an increase. 

One hundred silos will be erected 
fr!"atv in the Province of Alberta 
next year, according to 
S. G. Carlyle, live stock 
who has 

Farm Residence of Hon. Mr. Greenfield, Alberta's Farm Premier 

been traveling through the Province with the live stock demon- 
stration car. Farmers have come to have an increasing realiza- 
tion of the better feeding qualities through the use of silos 
and they are being erected widely. 

Poultry. — Poultry- in Alberta pays; at least, W. E. Deckan, 
who farms there says so. On January 1, 1920, he had on his 
farm 258 white Leghorn hens. From these hens he obtained 
eggs which he sold to the value of $656.35. He used and set 
eggs to the value of $283 . 90. He sold $105.79 worth of chickens 
and used $14.10 worth himself. This makes a total revenue 
of SI, 060. 14, against which must be set bought food to the 
extent of $73.90 and about $200 worth of grain raised on the 
farm. The net profit amounted to $786.15. And Mr. Deckan 
is not a poultry man — this is merely an interesting little side- 
line. One shipment of farm poultry from the Grande Prairie 
country was made up of 20,000 pounds comprising dressed 
turkeys, chickens and ducks. 

Roots and Vegetables. — Alberta's potato yield last year is 
reported at about 8,000 carloads. The Edmonton district is 
the centre of this kind of farming, and under the auspices of 
the new co-operative marketing scheme that is now being tried 
out, it is expected that the potato growers hereabouts received 
better average returns for their crop than in any previous 
season. The quality of the crop has also been first class, an 
improvement in this respect being shown from year to year, 
and particularly in the way of standardized varieties. 

Taxation. — The tax levy in rural districts is made on the 
valuation of the land only, with the exception of a few districts 
where a small rate per acre is assessed for municipal 
purposes, such as the improvement of roads, etc. 
None of the farmer's equipment or property other 
than the actual land is assessed. The average 
tax for municipal purposes averages about 7J4 
cents per acre. In certain rural sections a 
comparatively small tax fcr school pur- 
poses is made on a flat rate, per acre. 

Education. — Besides the several 
institutions maintained by the 
Province for farm educa- 
tion, the public school 
system is quite 


A Visit Pleasant — a Stay Profitable 

In 1906 there were 742 school districts; in 1921, 3,301. In 
1906 there were 729 teachers; in 1921, 5,320. 

Social Conditions. — Alberta shares with the other Western 
Provinces the fraternal and philanthropic spirit which finds 
expression in liberal public services in such matters as schools 
churches, hospitals, and all institutions and associations that 
go to advance the social welfare of the people. The telephone 
eliminates isolation and inconvenience. Telegraph communi- 
cation is extensive and highly organized. Public libraries are 
established in most of the large and small centres, and travel- 
ling libraries under the direction of the Provincial Government 
carry their social benefits and advantages tc> points where no 
permanent libraries are located. Women's institutes, com- 
munity clubs and other organizations, that have for their object 
the improvement of 
the social life of rural 
districts carry on all 
over the Province. 

The number of 
cities in the Province 
increased from five 
in 1912 to six in 1921, 
while the towns rose 
from 26 to 54, vil- 
lages from 75 to 119, 
municipal districts 
from 55 to 167. 
Revenue 1912, 
$294,199; 1921, 

Game. — In the 
streams of the Rock- 
ies therearegamefish ; 
in the foothills and mountains, mountain sheep, goats, panthers, 
moose, deer, and bear abound. On the prairies numerous lakes 
and rivers afford good boating and fishing. Prairie chicken, wild 
geese, and wild ducks are plentiful. The far north of the Prov-. 
ince produces a large fur catch. 

Alberta at the International. — Alberta took eleven prizes for 
grain exhibits out of a total of twenty-five at the Chicago Inter- 
national Exhibition in 
1921. This proves to 
the world that grains of 
all descriptions grown 
in the Province, ranks 
second to none in the 
world 's awards. Tak- 
ing into consideration 
the fact that many dif- 
ferent grain growing 
countries throughout 
the world had entries 
on exhibit, Alberta 
made a splendid show- 
ing and well main- 
tained previous records. 

Population. — The 
population of the Prov- 
ince of Alberta increas- 
ed from 374,663 in 1911 
to 581,995 in 1921, an advance of 207,332, or 55.34 per cent 
for the ten year period. The population of Calgary increased 
from 43,704 in 1911 to 63,117 in 1921, increase 44.42 per cent; 
Edmonton, 31,064, 58,627, 88.73 per cent; Lethbridge, 9,035, 
11,055, 22.81 per cent; Medicine Hat, 5,608, 9,575, 70.74 per 
cent; and Red Deer, 2,118, 2,323, 9.68 per cent. There 
are over five towns with a population exceeding 1,500, 
and fifteen with a copulation between 1,000 and 
1 ^g^kk 1,500. 


Magrath. — On one farm of 150 acres, 40 bush- 
MB^^^^^^k els of wheat per acre was threshed; another 
-JJ °f 8 ' mnar size went 23 bushels, while 

yields of 30 bushels to the acre were 

, * "ritfjiht Alliance. — R. Herrigodt had a 

yield of 34 bushels of 
wheat from a 56 

¥ \ / m%it I Btak^ acre field. 

Boys' and Girls' Wednesday Clubs are very educative 

Where every Home Comfort is obtained 

Mirror. — Archie Jaques had a yield of wheat averaging 30 
bushels per acre. 

Halcourt. — Dahl Bros, had considerably better than 40 bushels 
wheat per acre, which went 65}^ pounds to the bushel; the oat 
crop was in excess of 80 bushels, testing 45 pounds to the bushel. 

Waterhole. — 58 bushels of wheat to the acre was the report 
received from one farm. It was grown by Jack Campbell. 
Joseph Lislerkemp had an average yield of 42 bushels. At 
Bear Lake S. Sorensen had 52 bushels of beautiful wheat. 

Millet. — A. D. McLeod had 52% bushels of wheat per acre 
from a 12 acre field. 

Edmonton. — Twenty-five bushels of wheat to the acre was 
the average in the northern half of Alberta last year, according 
to a government estimate last fall. 

Clyde.— Wheat 
averaged 35 to 40 
bushels per acre. 
Arthur Edgson had 
a large field of wheat 
badly hailed early in 
June. It came along, 
however, and he got 
40 bushels per acre c 
from it. R. Lendrim ti 
had 50 bushels to 
the acre. 

Vermilion. — Last 
season's crops in the < 
Vermilion district, <> 
Alberta, were the 
finest since 1915r 
Everywhere there 
were magnificent 
yields, wheat running from 25 to 50 bushels per acre, and oats 
60 to 100 bushels per acre. At the farm of Geo. P. Filer, New 
Leader oats averaged 100 bushels while his wheaj; gave as 
high as 40 bushels. 

St. Paul de Metis. — Arthur Gunn had a yield of 65 bushels 
of wheat to the acre from a 20 acre field. 

Chipman. — A 48 acre field near here, belonging to Luk Wilnikd 

gave 1,080 bushels or 
35 bushels to the acre, 
while a field of break- 
ing gave him 50 bushsj^I 
per acre. Oats gave^OT 1 * 
and barley 45. 

Ponoka. — Wheat * > 
yielded about 28 bush- u . 
els per acre; oats 50^ 
barley 30; rye 20. 
Sufficient moisture 
gave plenty hay and , 
feed, and cattle were c 
in fine shape. 

Lloydminster. — 
Large crops and high 
average yields were the 
rule in this district, i j 

Duchess. — Irrigation , 
is largely carried on 
a reasonable rainfall. Wheat averaged d 
acre; barley 30. There is considerable 

here, but there was 
over 25 bushels per 

dairying done here, while gardening was a wonderful success. () 
Lacombe. — The early expectation of a yield of wheat at 25 

bushels of wheat per acre was realized at harvest time; oats 

went 48 bushels; barley 40; rye 40; many fields of wheat 

went 40 bushels, and oats 100. 

Red Deer. — An average of 23 bushels to the acre 

was the total yield by the threshers; oats 65; barley 

45. A sample of fall rye taken in the neighbour 

hood of Red Deer, in Central Alberta, affords 

a good example of the rapidity of growth 

and fertility of soil in the Province. 

The seed was sown on July 20th last 

year, germinated late in September, 

and was pastured last fall by 

cattle, hogs and sheep until 

there was not a trace 

of vegetation 


Unbounded Opportunities for The Big Man 

In the spring it came along 
r ik and was again pastured until 
10th, after which date it was 
11 d to grow. When the sample 
*as cut, on July ISth, the stand 
• :lv lly six feet high. 
Grand Prairie.— A correspondent 
e wheat crop beggared des- 
I . almost all fields yielded 40 
■ash,.. ,,f WD eat per acre. A 
nrcsluTnian, summing up seven 
i 1 °PV r3t ' pns ■J 8 tne yield aver- 
J\f bushels per acre. One field 
' -»lan,uig went GO bushels; a field 
, - : and a field of barley 71. 
Kep,,i 3 f rom fourteen farmers in 
, ,°, ren J vicinities indicate many 
'Plas of 35 to -10 bushels of wheat, 
«ie C oine as high as 50 bushels 
£ acre while oats went as high as 
*», and barley 70. 
^me magnificent vegetables were 
i exhibition at the Grande Prairie 

• ,r — " " l vjiaiiue rrairie 

S^^e'Lh? year - A h , ead of cabba ^ m «« 

at measured lfbv 20 & 1 m cacu ^%^ and potatoes 

si S^^Sd?^^ 2 pounds ' 5 ° unces; 

^tSiSS^AXfE" ° n Can „ be had m Alberta, 

Getting the Soil Ready 

bushels of Banner oat seed, he 
t hreshed 73 bushels. Some fields of 
wheat are reported to have yielded 
40 to 4.5 bushels of wheat per acre. 

Vauxhall.— The potato crop in 
the Vauxhall irrigated district was 
a big success; yields varying from 
200 to 400 bushels per acre of excel- 
lent potatoes were obtained last 
year. Four farmers built root cel- 
lars with a capacity of 30,000 

Mundare. — Reports from this 
district are very encouraging. Dur- 
ing 1921, approximately 7,000 acres 
of land were broken. The average 
yield of wheat was 30 bushels; bar- 
ley 40; oats 65. About fifty farm 
settlers came in in 1921, taking up 
nearly 5,000 acres of land. Crop 
failures are unknown. 
"A long road to travel, but 

made by L. V. Reeder, fonSy of* Italy "tcxS 'and nowtf 

mSThVo A ul b h rt Fd hlS ^ -d^ySev^cSd^S 
passed through Edmonton early in June of last year having 

n Fue n i m wS r , d - Car aU *^r4 fr0m his Texas to^.' g 
ii V j V th ! ? P er c ent of the world's supply of coal within 
the boundaries of the Province, the resident y^berta hTs no 
need to fear a fuel shortage. The settler on the prairie is 

be had for $25 to §40 ner 9 rre tt„- 

be had for $15 andTr. ^erSnc Lmm P rove d or wild land 
b town. And I wiuMeTo sav to lo h Cat, °\ and Stance 
gate, this is the only place there is to ^K Who , mt S nd to 
re, and there never *JaZtt^i£ e Z> lit , chea P * ands any 
*■ Come and bring your moneyTnd b£ a^X 
ady good farm myself. I am from Mich, r J 0W ? a 

< 50 y 7nd^er aVera6ed 3 ° bushels ^ V and oats 

W the roun/rv W eb P r er ac f re - He Ptate s that 
me country between Inmsfree and Edmonton 

to £lV?° rt"' * ave a return of To 
. to 2o bushels of wheat to the acre 

^ Manvule _W. H. Hilton's 30 bushels 

»^ to the acre yield of wheat, was 

■PT-*- beaten by Ed. Faber who got 

*r . • J,J b 'ishels to the acre 

Chas. Meeks had 80 
bushels of oats 
the acre, and 
from 9 

f^mutto tht'pit's mo^lhni 11 many tf ace8 he d "' Ves h * * 
In districts he is so hls t su PP l y at low cost, 

his fuel ^k^^rS™ ^ the means of getting 

till I omf nl * * . _ 1 , • _ 


»in„u easy reach. " ° 

Vrom Gre P a tB^td^t^^^ of oiI * coming 
Calgary are ipSSrfnTin ,v,vfn - F,elds ^"west of 

cations Tare that n L P P P V ^ Ua " tlties ' while the ind ^- 
introduced to the ^rM on^he^tSrfX^.^ be 

fifiiSBSr5& l s^afe =a = 

Natural gas is found in many paS if X m< p Com P anv - 
important indusSm" Medi 2e HatTnT' 
S? C1 5fhK B .° W Is k an u d furnishes S as to both CaW 
fn„ i^ ndge ; °i her Pas supplies have been 
found in Central and Xorthern Alberta 

rransportation.— Two transcontinental lines 
traverse the Province from east to west 
with lines running north and south and ' 
branch lines in every direction from all 
the large centres. There is a generous 
highway system all over the 
Province which the Provincial 
Government insists in .• . 
improving and main- 
t a i n i n g . *i'/.y '.' 

' ■ m 


i i \ GLORIOUS country little known" is the way in 
Z-\ which a writer in an old country paper refers to 
British Columbia. In his description of a "glo- 
rious country little known", he says: "The southern, central, 
and southeastern portions of British Columbia are possessed 
of attractions unsurpassed by any other country on earth." 

He continues, ''and were these only better known, a thousand 
persons from Europe, as well as other portions of the world, 
would traverse its entrancing expanse, for one that travels over 
it at present. The East and West Kootenay, the Boundary 
country, the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys, each with 
individual yet distinct beauties of their own, offer a vast expanse, 
over which months of entrancing and ever changing travel can 
be enjoyed. Range after range of stupendous mountains run 
in a more or less direct line north and south, and have between 
them wide valleys each possessed of lakes and rivers; on the 
waters of most of the former run passenger steamers; and are 
in length close unon one hundred miles. In spring and fall the 
varied colours of the foliage, the azure skies, the blue of the 
waters, the darker rocks of the mountains, relieved here and 
there with stretches of streaks of snow, and numerous water- 
falls, form scenes unapproachable in imagination. In summer 
the heat is not oppressive, as the atmosphere is dry, but sufficient 
to make possible the production of luscious fruits of many 
varieties, whilst the numerous wild flowers, many of them 
extremely vivid in colour, have a charm all their own. 

Brook trout abound in almost every stream, whilst in the 
rivers are other varieties of fish; the lakes yield lake trout and 
char, whilst in some the noble salmon yields kingly sport. Big 
game still abounds in the mountains, whilst lower down, grouse 
of various kinds, wild duck, geese, and many other kinds of 
water fowl are numerous, even pheasants and quail are to be 
found in some districts. 

The country is traversed from east to west by two lines of 
railway, running at an average of two hundred miles apart, 
whilst cross lines of travel are found between these in every valley, 
partly by steamers, partly by rail, but mostly the former. 

Another field of wide extent, lying altogether dormant for 
want of necessary enterprise and capital, is that of the Columbia 
Valley, or as it is generally termed, East Kootenay. Great 
portions of this consist of fine level benches, but lightly timbered, 
and of a fine quality of soil, but utterly useless for want of the 
necessary moisture to raise crops. Water exists along its whole 
length, cither in the shape of lakes, rivers, or streams; all that 
is required to render this portion of the country a 
veritable garden is the application of irrigation. In 
the neighbouring State of Washington, during the 
past year $75,000,000 worth of produce was 
raised from irrigated land, and. in accomplish- 
ing this, only 6 per cent of the available 
water supply was made use of. 

Between Tete Jaune Pass and Prince 
Rupert, considerable development 
has taken place. Mixed 
farming is now being car- 
ried on to a great 
extent to- 

Wherefore did Nature pour her bounties forth 
With such a full and un withdrawing hand, 
Covering the earth with odours, fruits, and flocks? — Milton 

gether with fruit production. No less than 52 new schools have 
been established in that portion of British Columbia during 
the last three years. Where there is a community in which 
ten children desire education, the Province sees to it that 
educational facilities are provided. Grain, vegetables, live stock, 
etc., are to be found growing in Central British Columbia; the 
climate, owing to the fact that the territory is west of the 
Rockies, is more moderate than many portions of our great West. 

Fruit. — The market for British Columbia fruit was widened 
considerably during the past couple of years. The big ship- 
ments that have been made recently to British and United 
States markets is giving an impulse to the development of the 
orchards, as well as putting the value of the land on a parity 
with the production. In London and New York the British 
Columbia apples are now placed in front rank and bring as high 
price as any apples produced throughout the world. 

This industry is now being extended northward to the central 
valleys of the Province. 

The fruit production cf the Okanagan Valley alone last 
year amounted to upwards of $8,000,000. 

It is not in apples alone that British Columbia orchardists 
take a justifiable pride. Pears, apricots, peaches, plums, 
quinces, cherries, berries of all kinds, and especially logan- 
berries thrive wonderfully and ship in splendid condition. 

From a forty-acre farm near Penticton Captain J. M. Beddall 
secured an estimated profit of $12,000 in apples alone. From 
these forty acres 10,000 boxes of apples have been shipped, as 
well as 8 tons of cherries, 12 tons of apricots and peaches and 
2 tons of peas and prunes. 

Population. — The last Dominion census gives the Province a 
population of 523,353 as compared with 392,480 in 1911, an 
increase of 35 per cent. 

Grain Fanning. — Grain is not grown extensively. As colo- 
nization develops, undoubtedly a much greater acreage will be 
sown to grain, particularly in the Central Interior. In the 
Coast districts wheat and other cereals are grown principally 
for live stock fodder and poultry feed. The Southern Interior 
has produced some excellent samples of Number One hard 
wheat, but the soft varieties are more generally produced. The. 
average yield of wheat per acre is 22.75 bushels. 

Cattle feed on the wild grasses of the wide ranges, where, 
with an abundance of water, pastures that never dry out and, 
for dessert, the wild pea vine and vetch, full of fattening quali- 
ties, they develop quickly and fatten rapidly, without any grain 
feed whatever. The climate is perfect, and few very are fed 
indoors at any period of the year. 

Dairying is one of the industries entered upon with activity. 
Land is low-priced, climate perfect for it, all the grasses and 
pasture that is needed, abundance of native shelter, the assistance 
of advisory experts, and a demand for the product. 

Hogs. — The home market provides an excellent place for the 
disposition of pork, bacon, hams and lard, and great expansion 
over the present production is warranted. The ease with which 
alfalfa is grown, the readiness of grain crops suitable for hog 
feeding, makes their raising easy and cheap. 

Sheep. — The most favourable locations for the rais- 
ing of sheep are to be found in the southern portion 
of Vancouver island and islands in the vicinity ; > 
but there is no doubt that the industry can be ^£ 
followed with equal profit in other sections. 

Poultry. — There is no place on the 
Continent where the poultry industry 
can be developed with greater 
success. This is attributed 
to the splendid climate, 
and other conditions 
favourable to it. 


EE and honey in- 
dustry showed a 
gain of 33 per cent 
in 1921 over that 
of 1920. an indica- 
tion of the advance 
made in that very 
profitable indus- 
try. Apiaries in- 
creased during the 
year from 1,986 to 
2,072, and hives 
lrom 9,537 to 
10,329, the average 
yield in some places 
being 72 pounds of 
honey per hive, 
and the price, 29 
cents per pound. 

Lands. — There 
are lands owned 
by the government 
and also private 
individuals. Free 
grants of 160 acres are given, with certain regulations attached; 
or they may be purchased at from §2.50 to S5.00 per acre; culti- 
vation, improvements, development and conditions are required.' 
Leases not exceeding 20 acres are also granted. It is a difficult 
matter to give a fair idea of the prices of land In the central 
portion unimproved lands, held by private parties brought last 
fall from §12.50 to $22.00 per acre. Fruit lands of course are] 
higher, based, doubtless on the profits that are being made; in 
some places they are 
changing hands at 
from $400 to 81,500 
per acre. These 
prices do not by any 
means constitute a 
price at which lands 
fully as good, but not 
as fully improved 
may be purchased. 

Timber. — Directly 
and indirectly the 
timber industries of 
resent nearly half 
the trade and com- 
merce of this Prov- 
ince. In 1920 they 
produced nearly 
$93,000,000 worth of 
commercial material 
and it is estimated 
$100,000,000 mark. 

Climate. — Owing to the mountainous character of the greater 
part of the Province, and its great length from south to north, 
the climate is naturally varied. Along the Pacific seaboard 
there are no extremes in temperature, either in winter or summer, 
and the rainfall is considerable. Speaking generally of the 
climate on Vancouver Island and the Coast districts of the 
mainland, the summers are fine and warm, with plenty of 
bright sunshine, and severe frost scarcely ever occurs in the 
winter. These conditions are partly due to the influence of 
the Japan ocean current, which exercises a tempering effect on 
the seaboard districts from Alaska southward. 

To the eastward of the Coast Range, the climate 
is quite different. The summers are warmer, 
the winters colder and the rainfall rather 
light; bright, dry weather is the rule. The 
winter cold, however, is seldom severe, 
and the hottest days of summer are 
made pleasant from the' fact that the 
air is dry and the nights are cool. 
t In the Selkirks, the precipitation 

heavy, and the valleys 
between the Selkirks and 
the Rockies have, 
generally, an 

Sheep Ranching in B 

that this year will run well over the 

abundant rainfall. Taken on the whole, the climate of the 
Province may be termed mild to moderate, varying according 
to belts, latitude and altitude. 

Education. — The school system is free, nonsectarian and 
efficient. In outlying districts the Provincial Government 
builds a school house, makes a grant for incidental expenses 
and pays a teacher, where twenty or more children can be brought 
together. In the cities and towns, having charge cf their own 
schools, liberal grants are made. There are 847 schools in t he- 
Province, of which 42 are high schools. The University of British 
Columbia is located at Vancouver. Agricultural education in 
all its branches is encouraged. Experimental farms at Sydney, 
Agassiz, Invermere and Summerland are established for the 
benefit of those engaged in agriculture or horticulture. 

Taxation. — The rate of taxation is on the basis of one per cent 
of the assessed value on real property and one per cent on per- 
sonal property. Farmers are exempt up to one thousand dollars 
on personal property and on improvements on real property up 
to fifteen hundred dollars. 

" > Scenery. — A Province with such extensive wonderful physical 
features and environment must possess as a great natural asset 
scenery on an almost unprecedented scale. It is wonderful not 
only on account of the grandeur to which in many places it 
attains, but also on account of its great diversity. The travellers 
on the railways, particularly, are impressed with the Rockies 
and the Selkirks and the canyons of the Fraser and Skeena. 
The mountains tower aloft in vast cathedral domes and jagged 
spires and castellated keeps. They rise from deep-green wooded 
slopes, up and up, sheer into the sky, to end in soaring summits 
'of white and gray, except when snow and ice and rock alike 
blush rosy in the setting sun. From the ledge where the rail- 
way runs the traveller looks up to dizzy heights, then down to 

distant depths 
where torrents 

green and white 

. » _ a ^SfeM^M tear downwards to 

^TBP Now he speeds out 
"fuJlKf^i across a deep cut 
* v i JSnHk tS' g° r g e i ar) d now he 
rolls along beside a 
lake fantastically 
set among mirrored 
peaks. The huge 
walls close in, and 
then fall back, leav- 
ing room for a 
broad and beauti- 
ful meadow. Plung- 
ing into another 
range, the train 

ritish Columbia Park runs a wild race 

with a foaming 

river, through solemn canyons where grotesque patches of 
purple and orange earth and rock are dotted with solitary 
pines. The scenery equals, if it does not surpass, the finest 
that Switzerland can afford, and it many times surpasses it in 
extent and variety. The mountains and the extraordinary 
river canyons, though the most impressive, are not, indeed, the 
most attractive. It has "bits of rural England," the fjords of 
Norway, the table lands of the Andes, great rivers, noble lake 
expanses, extensive natural parks, mighty forests of giant 
timber, and a coast line that for extent and uninterrupted 
beauties has no parallel. It has for the greater part a mild and 
equable climate which greatly enhances the enjoyment 
of the picturesque. Many thousands of tourists and 
holiday-makers visit British Columbia every year. ^ ' 

At most of the points where the scenery 
is exceptionally beautiful or the sport in the 
neighbourhood notably good, hotels with 
every comfort and convenience are 
established. British Columbia has 
often been referred to as one of 
the playgrounds of the world. 
Every portion of the 
country has its attrac- 
tions either in agri- 
culture, minerals >^*<i>i5ep 
or scenerv. .. JSj 


Canada Continues Winning World's Prizes 

AGRICULTURE in Canada has the status of a profession 
which both its high standard of operation and the prime 
place it occupies in national life justify. The days when 
land was casually filed on and fanned without any intelligent 
understanding of agricultural processes are going with the dwin- 
dling availability of the land, and rapidly passing is the epoch of 
the destruction of soil values and the abandonment of farms 
which have been rendered unproductive. Clearer and clearer 

achieved the most signal honours at international farming 
competitions have not been lifelong farmers, but city men who, 
taking to the land after reaching maturity, without the remotest 
previous knowledge of agricultural activities, have through 
intelligent study and close application of the best farming 
methods surpassed the efforts of those agriculturists who have 
continued doing things on the farm in the way their fathers 
used to do them. 

A Western Canada Clydesdale Entry at the International 

has become the realization that farming is a specialized profession 
requiring special training, and in the place of this spoliation there 
is an intelligent system of crop rotation, preservation of the 
virtue of the land, a discovery of the nobility of the farmer's 
calling and a determination to secure and achieve the best pos- 
sible in everything. 

The Education of the Farmer. — Agricultural colleges, exper- 
imental farms, government literature, 
railway propaganda, all in an appreciation 
of the national benefits which accrue, 
contribute to the education of the farmer 
who, if he starts out in ignorance, speedily 
discovers the futility and profitlessness 
of continuing in this state. It is only of 
comparatively recent years that farming 
in Canada has become the comprehen- 
sive and exhaustive study it is, and its 
tenets been so widely absorbed, and older 
farmers who have followed haphazard 
methods, or systems scientifically un- 
sound, are gradually forced from neces- 
sity into an intelligent study and applica- 
tion of their profession. 

This brings us to the city man who 
is anxious to leave his old life for the 
greater freedom of the country and take 
a farm for himself, and, the foregoing 
holding good, he need not follow far 
behind the older farmer if he take up 
the study of his work seriously, bring 
energy and intelligence to bear upon a 
following out of the systems of experienced and successful 
agriculturists, and utilize the results of the expert investigation 
and research the Dominion places at his disposal. The whole 
country is working for him, and the novice has almost an equal 
opportunity svith the fanner of a lifetime. 

A census of Canadian farmers would probably show 
that fully one half are not farmers' sons, and 
were not brought up to the life of the farm. 
Yet none would criticize Canada's farmers 
on the score of poor farming methods in 
general, the excellency of their crops 
with international honours and the 
universal demand for their live- 
m, stock products refuting this 
effectually. Significant is 
. it. too. that practically 

all the farmers 
who have 

City Boys Greater Prize Winners. — One might mention the 
Saskatchewan "Wheat Wizard," Seager Wheeler, who has carried 
off the world's wheat championship no fewer than six times. 
The son of fisher folk in the South of England he spent his early 
years as a book-stall clerk, and his farming knowledge was nil 
when he took a western homestead. The Hill family of 
Lloydminster, Alberta, which has carried off the world's oats 
championship so often, were also inex- 
perienced city folk from England when 
they settled in the West. Samuel 
Larcombe, of Manitoba, who won the 
wheat championship two years ago, was 
also an English city boy. J. C. Lucas, 
of Cayley, Alberta, who secured the 
international oats championship at 
Chicago last year, started life in Strat- 
ford, Ontario, and when he took a Western 
homestead had neither money nor expe- 
rience. Farmer Maynard, who ran 
Seager Wheeler a close second for cham- 
pion in 1912, was a successful tailor in 
England before the call of the land 
brought him out to Manitoba to raise 
prize wheat. Frank Collicut, the Alberta 
rancher, whose Hereford herd is restock- 
ing many farms all over the American 
continent, was also a city boy, and when 
he made his commencement as an agri- 
culturalist had only the wherewithal to 
purchase one cow, which became the 
founder of the huge herd of pure-bred 
Herefords which wander over Willow Springs. Nick Tatinger, 
the Alberta barley champion, whose crop each year leaves the 
country at fancy prices, not only had the supposed handicap 
of a youth spent in a Belgian city, but was minus one arm 
and capital which would have been useful. Nevertheless, _^gS 
he manages to run the farm himself and has made his 
name internationally famous. 

Inexperienced city men need not fear setting out 
upon a farming career in Canada, or anticipate any 
disaster, as long as they do so in the recognition 
of the high standing of the occupation, and 
with the intent of following out its study ti nr m 
as such, in which they will find all assist- 
ance available. The fundamental Aim 
reason of the immigration to 
Canada is settlement 
upon Canada's fertile 


Production Cost Lowered to a Minimum 

HE growing of corn and sun- 
flowers, which commenced 
but a few years ago in 
Western Canada causes the 
erection of silos as almost 
a necessity and, as such, it 
has proven and is proving, 
of inestimable economical 
value. In Alberta during 
the past year silo btrilding 
ha9 increased ten-fcld — over 
40 having been built in the 
Lethbridge district alone. 
Many of these silos have a 
mixture of corn and sun- 
flowers. In one district the 
average yield of sunflowers 
was twenty tons to the acre, and grew to several feet higher 
than a tall man. Speaking particularly of sunflowers, one grower 
estimated that the cost of growing and putting into the silo 
approximated SI. 50 per ton. 

A correspondent writes: All over the prairies large and small 
patches of sunflowers were to be seen this summer, higher than 
a man could reach. Cutting now has been completed and silos 
filled to the brim. Even in the driest districts satisfactory yields 
cf this crop have been obtained. 

C. E. Thomas, who farms at Lloydminster, on the border of 
Alberta and Saskatchewan, has just finished fillmg his silos with 
234 loads of sunflowers, harvested from 14 acres. He has kept 
a careful cost account and estimates that his winter feed has 
all been put up at an expenditure of approximately S2.00 a 
ton. This includes ploughing, sowing, cultivating, seed, rent and 
harvesting operations, allowing 10 per cent depreciation on the 
equipment, such as silo, binder, cultivator, and ensilage cutter. 

One interesting feature of the harvesting operations was the 
presence of an American from the Southern States, who happened 
to be in Lloydminster prospecting for land, and who went on 
the sunflower-harvesting job as an extra helper in order to get 
fir.;t-hand information. He said he had learned more about 
the possibilities of Canada in the few days spent on the farm 
than from all the literature he could read in a year. He also 
asked as a favour to be allowed to help in the threshing of 
100 acres of wheat he had seen on the farm, so that he could 
tell the people down South that he had helped thresh the best 
field of wheat he had ever seen. 
J_'Why, man, you people have the finest country on the con- 
tinent, and only one in a hundred of you seems to know 
it," he exclaimed. 
There does not seem to be any question that corn, 
sunflowers and silos promise to revolutionize farm- 
ing methods in Western Canada. In the past 
this country has been abundantly proud of the 
world standing it has attained by its remark- 
able production in quality and quantity 
of wheat, oats and barley. This position 
it will always hold. Its climate, 
soil, and other conditions, that 
tend to facilitate the pro- 
duction of small 
cereals .of a 

order, will always remain as a distmguishing mark of a rapidly 
developing country of great possibilities. 

So much time and attention were devoted to the growing of 
small grains that the experiment of growing corn was held 
back, until some of the more venturesome, deafened their ears 
to the statement, "You are too far north to grow corn." They 
knew that it was not long since that the growing of corn in 
Minnesota was looked upon as but an experiment, and a weak 
one at that; they knew that today Minnesota and North Dakota 
were vieing successfully with the more southern states in growing 
just such a corn as Western Canada will be producing in a very 
few years. Thus will be given an additional value to the land 
that Las developed in wheat which gave to the country the title: 
"The Granary of the World," and which will soon pass muster 
under the cognomen, "The Corn Belt of the Northwest." 
There is at present some contention as to the relative value of 
corn or sunflowers as silage, each having its champions, but as 
far as Western Canada is concerned it matters little which shall 
win, for the success of one is as assured as that of the other. 

■ in limit i ti 1 1 iitn ii i ti i iiiii i ii i ii mi ill il lilt in li til nun in i n i mi in mi i li in mi r i r 1 1 1 1 1 >■ i m 1 111 in r 11 1 nt inn 

Out Where the West Begins 

"Out where the handclasp's a little stronger, 
Out where the smile dwells a little longer, 

That's where the West begins; 
Out where the sun is a little brighter, 
Where the snows that fall are a trifle whiter, 
Where the bonds of home are a wee bit tighter, 

That's where the West begins. 

Out where the skies are a trifle bluer, 
Out where friendship's a little truer, 

That's where the West begins; 
Out where a fresher breeze is blowing. 
Where there's laughter in every streamlet flowing, 
Where there's more of reaping and less of sowing, 

That's where the West begins. 

Out where the world is in the making, aching, 

That's where the West begins; 
Where there's more of singing and less of sighing, 
Where there's more of giving and less of buying, 
And a man makes friends without half trying — 

That's where the West begins". 

■unanramaiiiaa imuBmmnmi iiiiimmmumiiiiiin n oinmimmnrminTOniumitiminiu 

A strong feature, and one that bids respect, of Canadian life, 
is the regard for the observance of law. This is summed up 
in an article contributed to a western newspaper, the writer 
saying: "The splendid people with whom we became 
acquainted along our way through the provinces was the 
most enjoyable feature of the trip. They are highly 
educated and very cultured. I was fascinated by the' 
perfect manner of the Canadian little folks. Another' 
thing that I admired greatly is Canada's com- 1 ' 
plete observance of the Sabbath day. They' 
believe that six days are enough for man, 
and the seventh is God's, so to Him 
it is given." Stores and all places 
of business, even moving picture 
houses, are closed, and in 
few towns can one pur- 
chase an ice cream 


GENERAL INFORMATION [pertinent queries— explicit replies] 

Owing to the number of questions asked daily, it has been deemed advis- 
able to put in condensed form, such questions as most naturally occur, giving 
the answers which experience dictates as appropriate, conveying the informa- 
tion commonly asked for. If the reader does not find here the answer to his 
particular difficulty, a letter to the Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa, 
Canada, or to any Government Agent whose name appears on the inside of 
the front cover of this publication, will secure full particulars. 

1. Where are the lands to which reference is made ? 

In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. 

2. What kind of land is it ? 

The land is mostly prairie (except in British Columbia) and can be secured 
free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil being the very best alluvial 
black loam from one to two feet deep, with a clay subsoil. 

3. Is it timber or prairie land ? 

The province of Manitoba has considerable open prairie, especially in the 
southwest; towards the centre it is parklike with some timber belts in parts. 

The southern parts of Saskatchewan and Alberta are chiefly open prairie 
mth growths of timber along the streams. As you go north or northwest 
ibout 20 per cent of the country may be said to be timbered. 

4. Is there sufficient rainfall ? 

A sufficient supply can be relied upon. The most rain falls in May and 
June, when most needed. 

5. What are the roads like ? 

Bridges and culverts are built where needed, and roadways are usually 
graded up, but not gravelled or macadamized. The natural prairie road 
is superior to most manufactured roads and affords good travelling in ordinary 
seasons and every fall and winter. 

6. What sort of people are settled there, and is English generally spoken? 
Canadians, English, Scotch, Irish, French, and English-speaking Americans 

(svho are going in, in large numbers), with Germans and Scandinavians. 
English is the language of the country and is spoken everywhere. 

7. What grains are raised in western Canada ? 

Wheat (winter and spring), oats, barley, flax, speltz, rye and other small 
grains; corn Is grown chiefly for silo purposes. 

8. How long does it take wheat to mature ? 

The average time is from 100 to 118 days. This short time is accounted 
for by the long hours of sunlight which during the growing and ripening sea- 
son averages 16 hours a day. 

9. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land ? 

Yes, but it is not well to use the land for any other purpose the first year 
than for raising garden vegetables, or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily 
rough on account of the heavy sod not having had time to rot and become 
workable. Good yields of oats have been reported on breaking. 

10. Is there plenty of hay available ? 

In many parts there is sufficient wild hay meadow on government or vacant 
land, which may be rented at a very low rental, if you have not enough on 
your own farm. Experience has proven that timothy, brome, clover and 
other cultivated grasses do well. Yields of brome have been reported from 
two to four tons per acre. Alfalfa under proper cultivation in many places 
gives successful yields. 

11. Do vegetables thrive — and what kinds are grown ? 

Potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, onions, parsnips, cabbages, peas, beans, 
celery, pumpkins, tomatoes, squash, melons, etc., are unequalled anywhere. 

12. Can fruit be raised and what varieties ? 

Small fruits grow wild. The cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawberries, 
gooseberries, raspberries, currants. In British Columbia fruit growing of all 
kinds is carried on very extensively and successfully. 

13. Is live stock raising more profitable than grain farming? 

The two should be combined. In seasons of high grain prices and other 
favourable conditions grain farming is very profitable, but the farmer who 
has a few horses, beef steers, hogs, sheep, cows and poultry for sale every year, 
is in the best position. 

14. How much baggage will I be alio jred on the Canadian railways? 
150 pounds for each full ticket. 

15. Are settlers' effects bonded through to destination, or are they ex- 
amined at the boundary? 

If settler accompanies effects they will be examined at the boundary, with- 
out any trouble; if effects are unaccompanied they will go through to the 
nearest bonding (or customs) point to destination. 

16. In case settler's family follow him what about railway rates ? 

On application to Canadian Government Agent, settlers' low railway rate 
certiBcate will be forwarded, and they will be given the settlers' privilege. 

17. What is the duty on horses and cattle if a settler should want to take 
in more than the number allowed free into Canada ? 

Over one year old, they will be valued at a minimum of $50 per head, and 
duty will be 25 per cent. 

18. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for grain, 
what does a man do if he has only 160 acres? 

If a settler should desire to go into etock raising and his quarter-section of 
160 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish pasture for his stock, he can 
make application to the Land Commissioner for a lease for grazing lands at 
a very low coat in certain districts. 

19. Where is information to be had about British Columbia? 
Apply to Secretary Provincial Bureau of Information, Victoria, B. C. 

20. How is the Country governed? 

The Provincial Governments are elected altogether by popular vote and are 
responsible directly to the people. The laws are similar to those of many in 
the States, but American settlers all declare they are better observed by the 
people in Canada. Canada is self-governing just as much as the United 
States, although it is a part of the British Empire. The Dominion Govern- 
ment makes and administers the laws for the people at large; the Provincial 
Government of each province makes and administers the local laws. 

21. Are the taxes high? 

Taxes on occupied lands are very low, running from S30 per quarter-section 
up, according to the improvements that have been undertaken by the farmers 
in the district. Such improvements are road building, schools, telephone 
lines. There is no tax on personal property, household effects, farm machinery, 
farm buildings and improvements, nor on live stock. All taxes are based on 
the value of the land itself without regard to cultivation or improvements. 

22. Does the Government tax the settler if he lets his cattle run on Govern- 
ment lands ? What about line fences ? 

The settler is not required to pay a tax for allowing his cattle to run on 
Government land, but it is advisable to lease land from the Government for 
baying or grazing purposes, when needed. If one fences his land, his adjoining 
neighbour, if miking use of it, has to stand a proportionate share of the cost 
of the fence adjoining his property, or build one-half of it himself. 

23. Where can material for a house and sheds be procured, and about 
what would it cost ? What about fuel ? 

Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian west there are locali- 
ties wnere building timber and material is limited, but this has not proven any 
drawoack as the Government has made provision that should a man settle on 
a quarter-section deprived of timber, he can, by making application to the 
Dominion Lands Agent, obtain a permit to cut on Government lands free of 
charge the following, viz.: 

(1.) 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, measuring no more than 12 inches 
at the butt, or 9,250 feet board measure. (2.) 400 roofing poles. (3.) 2,000 
fencing rails and 500 fence posts, 7 feet long, and not exceeding five (5) inches 
in diameter at the small end. (4.) 30 cords of dry fuel wood for firewood. 

The settler has only the expense of the cutting and hauling to his homestead. 
The principal districts are within easy reach of fuel; the settlers of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan are particularly favoured, especially along the various 
streams, from some of which they get all the coal they require, at a trifling cost. 
No one in the country need suffer from the cold on account of scarcity of fuel. 
Lumber is about the same price or a little lower than in the United States. 
The principal supply comes from British Columbia and from the northern 
woods of the three provinces. Sand and gravel are fairly plentiful and where 
a supply of this can be had, cement, which is reasonable in price, is considerably 
used. Cement is but little more expensive than in the United States. Brick 
of good quality is to be had at principal centres, and varies in price. 

24. Is it advisable to go into a new country during the winter months with 
uncertain weather conditions ? 

A few years ago, when settlement was sparse, settlers were advised to wait 
until March or April. Now that so many have friends in Western Canada 
there need be no hesitation when to start. Lines of railway penetrate most 
of the settled districts, and no one need go far from neighbours already settled. 
There is no longer the dread of pioneering, and it is robbed of the romance 
that once surrounded it. With farm already selected, it is perfectly safe, 
and the prospective homeseeker can get some sort of occupation until early 
spring, when he will be on the ground ready. 

25. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquainted with 
local conditions? 

This can be done through the Commissioner of Immigration at Winnipeg 
who is in a position to offer engagements with well established farmers. Men 

experienced in agriculture may expect to receive good wages on yearly engage- 
ments.- During the spring, summer, and fall months, engagements are made 

at higher figures. 

26. If I have had no experience and simply desire to learn farming in 
western Canada before starting on my own account ? 

Young men and others unacquainted with farm life will find positions through 
the Government officers at Winnipeg. Wages are dependent upon experience 
and qualification. After working for a year in this way, the knowledge acquired 
will be sufficient to justify you in going into farming on your own account. 

27. Are there any schools outside the towns? 

School districts cannot exceed five miles in length or breadth, and must 
contain at least four actual residents, and eight to twelve children varying in 
the different provinces, between the ages of five and sixteen. In almost every 
locality, where these conditions exist, schools have been established. 

28. Are churches numerous? 

The various denominations are well represented and ohurohes are being 
built rapidly even in the most remote districts. 

29. Can water be secured at reasonable depth? 

In most places it can be had at from fifteen to forty feet, while in other 
places wells have been sunk to fifty or sixty feet. Flowing wells are secured 
in many places at reasonable depth. 

30. What are the facilities for storing and marketing grain? 

There is good grain elevator accommodation at every station. The govern- 
ment owns large elevators and the large grain milling firms have elevators 
everywhere. There are also track warehouses and loading platforms, where 
the farmer can load his own wheat direct to the cars and have it shipped in 
his own account direct to the government terminal elevators. 

31. Should I bring my farm implements to Canada? 

If they are in serviceable condition and you can make up a carload bring 
them. You will find it cheaper than buying new implements. 

32. Should I try to make up a party of neighbours to settle in one district? 

That is a good plan. Such neighbours can co-operate in the use of machinery 
and in farm operations in such a way as to considerably reduce their expenses. 

33. How can I get information as to where is the best place to buy? 
First decide in your own mind whether you prefer a farm for only grain 

growing, that is a level open place, where every acre can be cultivated, or 
whether you prefer a farm suitable for mixed farming, that requires a place 
where there is some natural shelter in the way of useful clumps of poplar and 
willow and where there is now a good part of the land open prairie. Some 
districts are all open level prairie, without any bush, and other districts are 
known as a "park" country, having open parts of prairie, sheltered amongst 
clumps of small trees. The Canadian Government has no land for sale and is 
i nterested only in procuring farmers to settle on the free homesteads of 160 
acres, and cultivate the lands now unimproved and owned by the various 
railway companies, land companies, and private individuals. 

34. Do I have to change my citizenship? 

It is not necessary to become a citizen of Canada to own land or to farm it. 
After a few years residence in the country one can decide himself whether or 
not he may wish to do so. 

35. Is living expensive? 

One will find the actual necessities of life about the same price or at a slight 
advance to what you have been accustomed to. It is doubtful as to whether 
you would notice any difference in the price of wearing apparel. The high cost 
of living is due mainly to the high prices for things produced on the farm. 
Butter, meat, eggs, flour, poultry, milk, vegetables — these are the things which 
make living dear but they have no terror for the farmer, whose barns and 
gardens and fields supply all his needs. Indeed, the high cost of living has 
brought great prosperity to the farmer, because he is selling his produce at 
higher prices than ever before. 

36. What is the best way to get there? 

Write your nearest Canadian Government Agent for routes, and settlers' 
low railway rate certificate good from the Canadian boundary to destination 
for passengers and freight. 

In order to obtain the lowest possible fares, you should call upon, or 
communicate with the nearest representative of the Canadian Government, 
who will be pleased to quote fares and make nil arrangements for your trip. 

From Pacific Coast States, the route is via Vancouver and Kingsgate. 

From Montana, Wyoming, and Utah, via Great Falls and Coutts. 

From the Central States, via St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth, Winnipeg, and 
Portal. _ ., 

From the Eastern States the route is via Detroit, Niagara Falls, Hamilton, 
Toronto, Prescott, Montreal, Ottawa. 


Much Capital Is Not Absolutely Necessary — Read The Figures 

37. Whit is the average price of iarm lands in Western Canada? 

Land prices in Western Canada vary according to the distance from towns 
or rail" ays and also according to the class of the land and the type of farming 
to which it is adapted. Wild land suitable for mixed farming can be got in 
good districts from $1.*> an acre up; also good wheat land which needs clearing 
at $10 an acre up. Partly improved land can bo bought from $30 up to $00 
an acre, depending on location and the amount of improvements on the farm. 

38. Is the title to land bought and paid for secure? 

The registration of titles is known as the "Torrens System." Under this 
system the Provincial Governments maintain registry offices and handle all 
transfers and other negotiations regarding land. The ownership of the land, 
ma shown on the title, is guaranteed by the Government and this also makes 
it an easy matter for a new settler to procure reliable information as to any 
piece of land. 

39. Can I purchase land on time? 

There are few sales made where all cash is paid; ordinarily by paying a 
few dollars per acre down you can get a term of years in which to complete 

40. What About Franchise? — Every male and female who is of the age of 
twenty-one years and a British subject is entitled to vote, provided he or 
she has resided for twelve months in the province and three months in the 
electoral district, prior to the date of the closing of the registration of voters. 

41. What helps to give Canada's grain its value? 

The fervid sunshine of the long summer days, when one may read in the 
open air in June from 3.00 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. is one reason why Canada's No I 
wheat has a peculiar value over all other wheat in the world. 


Each shipment should be accompanied by an Export Declaration of the 
U. B. Treasury Department, Customs Form 7525, T. D. 3$, 410, signed in 
triplicate. If your railway agent has not these, apply to nearest Canadian 
Government Agent. These forms do not have to be sworn to where the 
goods are going to Canada. 

Advise the Canadian Government Agent of number of car and name of 

Person accompanying the car, when live stock is taken can make out entry 
papers on arrival in Canada. 

If less than carload, do not take bulky articles; only those of maximum value 
for minimum weight, such as bedding, dishes, etc., which can be shipped in 
boxes or securely crated. 

When carload" shipment is made goods on export shipment sheet should be 
described "One carload of emigrant movables or Settler's Effects." If car- 
load of household goods only, use the phrase, "One carload of household 
goods only," giving car number, weight and value, in each case. 

If less than carload, each piece must be crated or boxed, and marked with 
the name of the owner and destination in Western Canada, giving weight and 
value of each piece. At the bottom of the list add the words: "All being 
household goods, emigrant's movables or household effects." In the bill of 
lading use gross weight; in the export declaration net weight. 

An automobile can be described by giving make, engine number, weight 
and value. Freight rate on it is first class on a minimum of 5,000 lbs. or the 
actual weight multiplied by 2H times the first class rate in the United States, 
and 2 times the first class rate in Canada if wheels are removed, whichever is 
the larger amount. It can be shipped in the car with the other movables, 
but cannot get the movables rate. A tractor takes the movables rates. 

Ask Canadian Government Agent for rates over Canadian railways to 
which add rate from home point. 

Horses must be inspected by a Veterinarian of the American Bureau of 
Animal Industry. Hogs will be quarantined for 30 days at the boundary. 

An Ideal Climate 

During a part ot the winter the thermometer sometimes registers as low as 
forty degrees below zero, but the weather is dry and there is usually no wind 
with extreme weather. In neatly all parts of the Canadian West horses and 
cattle run out the entire winter without any other shelter than the natural 
bush. One of the best evidences as to the winter climate would be to read 
what others say of it. Learn the opinion of those who have enjoyed that 
bracing dry climate for 3"ears and you will be surprised at the number who 
will say, "I don't mind the cold as much here as I did back home." The 
summers are fine, with the long days of sunshine and the cool nights. In 
all, Western Canada ran boast of not only a cUmate well adapted to grain 
growing and stock raising but one of the most health giving on the continent. 

Rainfall occurs mainly during the growing months of May, June and Julv, 
when it is most needed by the crops. As a rule it proves sufficient for their 
needs when careful methods of farming are followed. A certain amount of hail 
Is annually precipitated in varying districts. The amount varies from year to 
year. Some sections appear to be more liable to receive it than others, but 
its times and places of appearance as well as its severity are quite uncertain. 
The percentage of damage it does to growing crops, taking the province as a 
whole, is small, though often very severe locally. Severe wind and electric 
storms are very rare. Thus taken the year around the climate is more 
pleasant and healthful than that of most countries of the world. 

Temperatures differ but little from the mean at any given time and rise or 
fall with fairly uniform variations. Lower temperatures in the more northerly 
latitudes are offset to a certain extent by the shelter derived from the woods 
and the modifying effects of large bodies of water. The uniform altitude of 
the prairies bears an important .relation in this respect. 

A very noticeable feature of the climate is the rapidity with which winter 
fives way to spring or even summer weather. A sudden rising of the temper- 
Stare, with bright sun and soft breezes, and in an incredibly short time the 
light mantle of snow has disappeared. Without waiting for the frost "to 
come out of the ground" the waters from the melted snow disappear, the 
cronnd surface dries up as fast as it thaws out and in a few days the dust is 
Wing again. Seeding operations soon follow and the transition .has taken 
place usually without the proverbial "March winds and April showers" and 
•u their discomforts. As a rule the snow disappears during March or very 
early in April. Early frosts and fall weather may be looked for in September. 
The most pleasant months of the year. However, are usually September and 
October. Wintry" weather is due any time after the first of November though 
Open falls till the first of December are not uncommon. 

Brandon, Man 

Indian Hea l, Sask. . 

Scott, Sask 

Rosthern, S.isk 

Lacornh, , Alta 

Lethbridge, Alta 

Average date 
of seeding 

April, 25 

•' 23 

" 29 

" 24 

" 15 

" 7 

Average date 
of cutting 
August, 19 

" 29 

Average days 
to mature 
116 days 
123 " 
118 " 
114 " 
136 " 
118 " 

Some Figures of Cost and Profit 

Building Material Prices.— The following are the prices quoted on 
January 1, 1922: 

2.t2, 2x6, 2x8 (16 feet) $ 35.00 

4x4, 6x8 (16 feet).. 48.00 

Shiplap (No. 1 pine or spruce) 38 00 

Drop siding (6-lnch) 55.00 

Common boards (6-inch No. 1) 70.00 
Flooring (E. G. fir, No. 3) 91.00 
Ceiling No. 1 56.00 

Ceinng (V. J. 1 Jx4) $56 00 

Plaster, per ton 25.00 

Lime, per barrel 3.30 

Hair, per bushel .75 

Shingles 6.50 

Lath 12 00 

Paper 1.05 

Wages for carpenters range from 95 cents to $1 00 per hour; bricklayers 
from $1.20 to $1.25 per hour; plasterers from $1.20 to $1.25; painters from 
90 cents to 95 cents per hour. 

Capital Required.— There is no fixed amount that can be stated as the 
capital essential in all cases. Some men have a genius for getting along on 
small capital, but it may as well be stated that the larger the capital the better. 
The settler who is taking up unimproved land without a loan should, in addi- 
tion to railway fares for his family, have sufficient capital to meet the following 
approximate expenditures: 

Inspection trip, fare, say.$ 75.00 
Freight carload household 

goods, sav 110.00 

Four voting pigs, $20 each 80.00 
House, about 500.00 

First payment, $20 land-. 320.00 

Implements 950.00 

Four dairy cows, $80 each 320.00 

Two dozen hens, $1.00 ea. 24.00 

Barn, about 300.00 

Poultry house, hog pen, cow shed 150 00 
.S-',v.!'.> DO 

This estimate anticipates that the home-maker will bring with him horses, 
harness, seed grain, etc. Of course, the settler who brings his own implements, 
and his own cows and poultry can materially reduce the above total. 

Implements and Building.— The estimate given is for the implements 
and machinery for a quarter-section (160) acres farm. The prices quoted 
are for new first-class quality implements, and may be reduced considerably 
by attending sales as are always talking place in every farming community. 
Better still, the farmer, for a small expenditure in freight, may bring his imple- 
ments with him. Homemakers locating together frequently co-operate with 
each other in the use of implements the first year or two: 

Wagon and box ...... $130.00 Wagon rack 20.00 

Walking plough, 12-inch_. 21.00 

Harrows , 22.00 

Mower 76.50 

Binder 170.00 

Two furrow gang plough.. $88.50 

Cream Separator 46.50 

Fanning Mill 20.00 

Power churn 8.50 

Blower feed cutter 98.00 

Power washer 31.50 

Drill 166.45 

Disc harrows 65.00 

Hay rake 49.00 


Light Draft Sulky 49.50 

Letz Grinder 12.50 

Woven wire 4 strand 

fencing 64.00 

Wagon Box 30.00 

Grain pickler 9.00 

The buildings erected the first year are largely a matter of the taste of tho 
purchaser; some settlers make their start with the crudest sort of structures, 
while others erect homes and outbuildings designed to till their needs for a 
long period. Thus the cost of a house may be anywhere from a couple hun- 
dred dollars to $1,000 and more, and the same may be said of the barn. 

Cost of Improving Land.— Breaking, three inches deep, per acre, $4.25 to 
$5.50; harrowing, each operation, per acre, 50 cents; discing, 3 times, per acre, 
$2.00; seeding, not including seed, per acre, 85 cents; seed, per bushel, market 
price; fencing, per mile, three wires, $150 to $200; hauling grain from nearest 
station to land, per mile, per bushel, .01 cent; treating grain with bluestone 
or formalin, per bushel, .04j cents; boring wells, using galvanized casings, per 
foot, $2.80 to $3.80; boring well, using steel casings, per foot, $3.00 to $8.50; 
cost of good work horse, $150 to $200. Coal varies with locality from $1.50 
per ton at mine to $9.75 per ton delivered at shipping point. 

Profit per 109 Acres.— The following estimate is regarded as fair by practi- 
cal men. It shows the cost and profit per acre on a crop of 100 acres of wheat. 

Preparing the land for seeding, $4.00; drilling, 20 cents; harvesting and 
stooking, 90 cents; threshing and delivering crop of 22.50 bushels, per acre 
(the average yield) at 12 cents per bushel, $2.70 per acre; entire cost of wheat 
crop per acre delivered to the elevators, $7.80; add interest, 8 per cent on land, 
at $20 per acre, $1.60; taxes (land, school, and road), per acre, about 20 cents; 
the total cost per acre, $9.60; receipts from sale of 22.50 bushels of wheat at 
95 cents per bushel, $21.37; net profit per acre, $1 1.77. Profit on 100 acres, 
$1,177.00. A deduction must be made to allow for cost of seed, which varies 
according to variety. 

The Free Homestead districts of the country are now largely 
confined to the section lying to the north of the Canadian 
National Railway. They are some distance from the railway 
line. It is claimed that they possess advantages not enjoyed 
by the more open districts to the south, where there are very 
few homesteads to be had. The following description fairly 
well pictures that portion of the country: 

It is a "bush country" with a good black loam soil, underlaid 
with a clay sub-soil, with good water to be had at from 10 to 
30 feet deep; no alkali. The bush consists of small poplar, 
willow, birch and some spruce, but the bush is fast disappearing 
by the method of running spring fires, and as the bush has no 
tap root it is easy to make ready for the plough. 

Some quarter sections are all open, others with from 20 to 
80 acres open, and numerous meadows of good hay land; the 
country is level to gently rolling, with many lakes filled with 
fine fish. 

Along the river there are many springs which make it 
ideal for stock raising, and the summer pasture is certainly 
fine, wild pea vine and vetch grow to a height of 6 to 8 feet and 
the cattle are fat and ready for market in the fall after pasturing 
all summer on it. 

It is a mixed farming country; wheat yielded from 30 to 56 
bushels per acre in 1921, and all other crops were good; there has 
not been a failure of crops in 14 years. There is ample rainfall. 
All kinds of vegetables do well. 

V--.;, s:'v-. . .